Chapter 3 – Developing a National Identity Section Notes Video From Nationalism to Sectionalism A Push for Reform Expansion Leads to Conflict From Nationalism to Sectionalism A Push for Reform Expansion Leads to Conflict Maps Missouri Compromise, 1820 Indian Removal, 1830s – 1840s Western Trails The Mexican-American War, 1846 – 1848 Quick Facts Nationalism and Sectionalism Causes and Effects of the Mexican-American War Images Early Steam Engine Waves of Immigration Pioneer Camp California Gold Rush
From Nationalism to Sectionalism • The Main Idea • In the early 1800s, feelings of nationalism grew, although conflicts between different regions of the United States were also emerging. • Reading Focus • What events reflected the rise of nationalism in the United States? • What was the Age of Jackson? • How did the Industrial Revolution affect the North? • What was the importance of cotton in the South?
Domestic Policy Monroe’s presidency, from 1817-1825, was called the “era of good feelings.” Growing nationalism was reflected in two landmark Supreme Court cases McCulloch v. Maryland: Sided with the federal government on the national bank issue, holding national interests above state interests Gibbons v. Ogden: Gave the national government sole right to regulate interstate commerce Foreign Policy The War of 1812 sparked national pride for Americans. Monroe’s foreign policy included The Adams-Onís Treaty (1819): Acquired Florida as a boundary between Louisiana and Spanish land; let Americans settle Oregon for 10 years The Monroe Doctrine: Made America off-limits to European colonization; stated that America should stay out of European affairs and vice versa Under President James Monroe, America’s foreign and domestic policies reflected rising nationalism and the growing economy.
Pride in the rapid spread of settlement fueled American nationalism, though it also caused some controversy. Of the 22 states existing in 1819, exactly half legally allowed slavery, most of which were Southern. This exact balance allowed for equal representation in the Senate, which would be disturbed if Missouri were granted statehood as a slave state. The Missouri Compromise admitted two states to the union instead of one: Missouri, a slave state and Maine, a free state. The Missouri Compromise Though the Missouri Compromise kept the balance, feelings of sectionalism, or the belief that the interests of one’s own region is more important than the whole, were emerging between the North and South.
Andrew Jackson lost his first election to John Quincy Adams, but defeated Adams after his first term. • Jackson supporters created a new party, the Democratic Party, and Adams supporters became known as the National Republicans. • Jackson’s presidency is known as the “Age of Jackson.” • Jackson’s presidency is marked by conflict with the Native Americans, especially five major groups in the Southeast whose land settlers wanted. • Jackson’s solution was the Indian Removal Act, which called for the relocation of Native American groups to an area west of the Mississippi River. • The U.S. Army supervised the relocation, in which Native Americans were forced to march hundreds of miles in miserable conditions. • So many Cherokees suffered and died that the march became known as the Trail of Tears. The Age of Jackson Jackson’s Presidency Native American Conflicts Native American Relocation
The National Bank Congress established the Second Bank of the United States in 1816 to regulate state banks, which grew rapidly after the demise of the First Bank of the United States. Jackson believed that Congress did not have the authority to create a national bank. Jackson knew that state banks made it easier for poor farmers in the South and West to get loans. Jackson sealed the fate of the bank by ordering the secretary of the treasury to remove national bank money and put it in state banks. States’ Rights Conflict rose over dividing federal and state powers. States’ rights supporters invoked the Tenth Amendment, which reserved all powers not specifically delegated as federal for the states. Southerners did not like foreign–good tariffs. South Carolina declared an 1832 tariff “null and void,” and threatened to secede from the Union, which began the nullification crisis. Jackson used military force to collect tariffs, but Henry Clay worked out an agreement to lower taxes for 10 years. Conflict between Federal and State Authority
The Industrial North • The Industrial Revolution (mid-1700s to mid-1800s) included the birth of modern industry and the social changes that accompanied industrial growth. • The Revolution began in the British textile industry when inventors created water-powered and steam-powered weaving machines. • The steam engine was crucial to the British Industrial Revolution, mostly due to improvements James Watt made late in the century. • The British made laws to prevent their knowledge of these industrial machines from spreading, but Samuel Slater violated those laws by building a textile mill in Rhode Island, launching the Industrial Revolution in America. • By 1810 there were more than 60 textile mills in New England. • Industrialization led to urbanization, as the percentage of the population who lived in cities doubled within 30 years.
Transportation and Communication Advancements Roads By 1840 a network of roads connected most U.S. cities, promoting travel and trade. Canals In 1825 the Erie Canal connected the Great Lakes and Atlantic Ocean and providing a quick, economical shipping route.More than 3,000 canals were built in the Northeast over the next 15 years. Railroads In 1830 the first steam-powered train ran in the U.S., and by 1840, 3,000 miles of track crossed the country, increasing travel and transport. The Telegraph In 1840 Samuel Morse patented the revolutionary telegraph, a communication device that allowed instantaneous communications. The device was soon widely used by newspapers, railroads, and businesses.
The Cotton Revolution Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, which separated the seeds from the usable parts of the cotton, made large-scale cotton production possible. The cotton gin was simple, but had a major impact on life in the South The booming textile industry in the North bought cotton to weave into cloth that was sold to Americans. The British Industrial Revolution raised the demand for cotton, making Southern cotton very valuable to grow. Slavery Spreads Even with the use of the cotton gin, farming cotton required a large number of workers. The first cotton farms were small and didn’t use enslaved African Americans, but wealthier farmers soon bought huge plantations and needed additional workers. Planters knew that the more enslaved African Americans they used, the more valuable cotton they could grow. Between 1810 and 1840 the number of enslaved African Americans in the U.S. more than doubled to 2.5 million. Cotton and the South
North Free states Favored a strong national government More nationalist Urban / Industrial Stronger transportation network South Slave states Favored states’ rights More sectionalist Rural / Agricultural Weaker transportation network Dependent on slave labor Differences in the North and South • The economic differences between the industrial North and the agricultural South led to greater differences between the two regions. • Trade and industry led to Northern urbanization, and transportation and communication advances were used by Northern industrialists. • The greatest difference centered around slavery, which was legal and viewed as economically vital in the South, but illegal and viewed as problematic in the North. • Few realized that these differences would lead to the Civil War.
A Push for Reform • The Main Idea • The Reform Era led to some improvements in American society as well as the beginning of the women’s movement and the abolition movement. • Reading Focus • How did religion spark reform in the early nineteenth century? • How did early immigration lead to urban reform? • What was the role of women in the Reform Era? • What was the abolition movement?
Western New York became known as the Burned-Over District as the flames of religion took over the minds of the people. New movements included Across the country, especially in the North, Americans experienced the Second Great Awakening, as people took up religion in huge numbers. Preachers of the Second Great Awakening were Protestant, and they did not preach adherence to church rules or obedience to a minister, but rather that hard work and dedication could bring heaven on earth. The Second Great Awakening’s moral focus sparked the Reform Era, a time when Americans tried to reshape their society. Religion Sparks Reform Mormon, started by Joseph Smith Seventh-day Adventist, started by William Miller Shaker farms, utopian communities, Spiritualism
The Reform Era lasted from about 1830 to 1860. • The men and women who participated in the many reform movements were called reformers. • Key reforms of this period included Prison Reform Dorothea Dix Worked for better conditions and new institutions for mentally ill The Temperance Movement Tried to lessen or eliminate the use of alcohol Education Reform Worked to improve the sub-par education system • One of the most remarkable movements of this era was the transcendentalism movement of New England. • Believed knowledge is not found only through observation of the world but by reason, intuition, and personal spiritual experience • Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were members. The Reform Era
During the 1800s, many people immigrated to America to escape poor conditions in their countries. Irish and Germans were two of the first groups to come to the U.S. in large numbers. By 1860 the U.S. was home to about 3 million Irish and German immigrants. Many immigrants, especially the Irish, were poor and struggling. Anti-immigrant sentiment was promoted by several groups, including the Know-Nothings, who were called that because when asked about their activities, members said “I know nothing.” They formed a political party called the American Party, which had more than 1 million members by the 1850s. Hostility was mostly directed toward the Irish, who were mainly poor and Catholic, whereas Germans generally had more money and were Protestant. Early Immigration
Growing cities had many immigrants living in tenements, or poorly made, crowded apartment buildings that were filthy and dark. • In an early reform effort, local boards of health set sanitation rules in some cities, though conditions remained bad for many years. • From 1820 to 1860 the number of American manufacturing workers soared from 5 percent to more than 30 percent, which had far–reaching social results. • Workers were given long hours, unsafe conditions, and low wages. • Workers began to organize into groups, demanding better working conditions, and starting the American labor movement. • The Ten-Hour Movement caused President Jackson to declare 10-hour work days for some federal workers. President Martin Van Buren later extended the rule to others in 1840. Reform in Cities and Industries Urban Reform Industrial Reform
Women Reformers Though women could not vote, serve on juries, or run for office, they played a large role in reform movements such as prison reform, education reform, and the temperance movement. All reform movements were rooted in the moral changes of the Second Awakening, and this opened doors for women. Many women did good works Started Bible groups Started missionary societies that later became reform societies Focused on issues from education to urban reform Women’s Right Movement The Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 was the first women’s rights convention in America. Two generations of women had already worked for greater rights, but women still couldn’t vote or hold public office. Dedicated abolitionists Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the convention. The Seneca Falls Declaration, held: “men and women were created equal.” The declaration was widely ridiculed, as were the women and few men who supported it. Women in the Reform Era
Life as an Enslaved Person • Enslaved African Americans were denied their most basic right — freedom. They had no choice but to work whenever the slaveholder demanded it. • Most enslaved people lived on farms or plantations in the South, doing farm work, hard labor, or servant duties in the household. • In cities, enslaved people worked in mills, offices, and homes; they also worked in the mines and in forests as lumberjacks. • Enslaved people mostly lived in intolerable conditions • Poor food and shelter • Non-existent medical care • Possibility of separation from family • Despite this, many found comfort in community, culture, and religion.
Some African Americans in the South were freemen, or African Americans who had been emancipated. These men and women faced legal and social discrimination, yet still played a large role in anti-slavery activities. Many freemen helped enslaved people escape, and many bravely spoke out for freedom for all African Americans. In 1831 the deadliest slave uprising in American history took place. Nat Turner and his accomplices killed dozens of whites before the uprising was put down by a local militia. Other enslaved African Americans chose to attempt escape, trying to reach the free states of the North, Canada, or Mexico. Anti-Slavery Efforts in the South • Over the years, a constantly changing network of escape routes developed called the Underground Railroad. Sympathetic whites and freemen provided help to escaping slaves. Harriet Tubman, who escaped slavery herself, helped many on their journey to freedom.
The number of enslaved people trying to escape increased in the 1830s, possibly encouraged by an anti-slavery movement in the Northern states. • The Second Great Awakening’s focus on morality caused many Northerners to see slavery as wrong and ungodly. • Many joined reform societies to stop slavery • Frederick Douglass, who escaped slavery, was a leading abolitionist. • He published an 1845 biography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. • 1833: William Lloyd Garrison founded the American Anti-Slavery Society. • It was the first group to call for an immediate end to U.S. slavery. • In five years, had over 1,500 chapters in the North. • Many abolitionists were women. • Sarah and Angela Grimké, daughters of a Southern slaveholder, were abolitionists. • They moved to the North to support abolition and women’s rights. The Abolition Movement in the North
Opposition to Abolition • Though the majority of white southerners did not own enslaved people, the minority who did found abolition outrageous, as if it were an attack on their livelihood and, to some, their religion. • Slaveholders argued that slavery was essential to cotton production, which was a powerful argument even in the North, because cotton accounted for 55% of American exports. • In fact, most Northerners supported slavery as well, since freedom for slaves meant more competition for jobs. • Still, the pressure to abolish slavery in the U.S. was undeniable.
Expansion Leads to Conflict • The Main Idea • As the United States pushed westward, conflict erupted between Texas and Mexico. • Reading Focus • How did the idea of manifest destiny influence Americans’ western migration? • How did Texas achieve independence from Mexico? • What were the causes and effects of the Mexican-American War?
Hundreds of thousands of Americans migrated West in the 1840s and 1850s, settling in different places, yet sharing the dream of new opportunity. • Some Americans believed in Manifest Destiny, which meant they thought it was America’s God-given right to settle western lands. • Several major western trails were well-established by 1850: • The Mormon Trail was the path that Joseph Smith’s persecuted Mormons followed in search of religious freedom in the West. The Santa Fe Trail led from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. • TheOregon Trail was the longest, most famous trail leading from Independence Missouri to the Willamette Valley in Oregon. Manifest Destiny Encourages Settlers
The Gold Rush • In 1848 a carpenter discovered gold at John Sutter’s sawmill in northern California. • News of gold spread and many migrated to California; this mass migration of miners, and businesspeople who made money from miners, was called the Gold Rush. • The 80,000 migrants called forty-niners left for California in 1849; this population boom enabled California’s statehood a year later. • In the 1850s the dream of finding gold brought people from all over the world, but mostly from America, to California. They came on the California Trail, on ships, and on mule trains. • In California, miners moved into camps and businesspeople moved into booming cities like San Francisco, Sacramento, and Stockton.
The Oregon Treaty Many Americans were present in Oregon Country due to migration. Presidential candidate James K. Polk attempted to secure Oregon for the U.S., because it was jointly controlled by America and Britain. The Oregon Treaty set the boundary between British Canada and the United States at the 49th parallel. This border still exists. Communication Links Western migration created a need for long-distance communication. The Pony Express, a relay chain of horsemen across the U.S., brought mail more quickly than regular mail could. Later, the telegraph allowed for instant communication and made the Pony Express obsolete. The Major Effects of Western Migration • Use of the western trails declined sharply after 1869 when railroad tracks ran unbroken from the East to West Coasts. • By that time, over 350,000 migrants, or about 1.5 percent of the total American population at that time, had followed overland trails West. • This huge migration had significant effects, especially for the Native Americans who already lived in the West.
In the 1500s, European explorers from Spain claimed Texas and tried to convert Native Americans to Christianity and to counter the threat of French settlement. By the 1800s Spain still claimed Texas but only had three settlements, which led Americans to start entering the area. In 1820 Moses Austin, an American banker, proposed the Texas Venture to Spanish officials, asking for land to build a colony. The Spanish agreed, eager to settle more land. When Moses Austin died, his son Stephen F. Austin carried out his plans. Austin’s Colony was established in 1823, and in it a small town called San Felipe de Austin, which was the administrative, commercial, and social center of the colony. By 1824, 300 families lived around San Felipe, and the colony was home to about 1,800 people, about 400 of whom were African Americans. During this time, Mexico won independence from Spain, and 30,000 settlers lived in more than a dozen Texas colonies, including many enslaved African Americans and Tejanos, or Texans of Mexican heritage. Americans Move into Texas
The Texas Revolution In order to settle in Texas, Americans had to agree to specific Mexican demands. Surrender American citizenship Swear allegiance to Mexico Adopt Roman Catholicism Hold the land for seven years The Texan settlers wanted independence from Mexico, which led to the Texas Revolution. Stephen F. Austin went to Mexico with the plan, but Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Ana saw independence as a threat. Santa Ana suspended some of the powers of Texas, and in 1836 Texas declared its independence. The Alamo The most famous battle of the Texas Revolution took place at the Alamo, a former mission turned into a military fort. A furious Santa Ana personally led 6,000 soldiers to the Alamo, demanding surrender, but Texan commander William Travis replied with cannon fire. After 12 days and nights, Mexican soldiers stormed the fort, killing its 200 defenders, including David “Davy” Crockett. Soon after, Texans captured Santa Ana in the Battle of San Jacinto, forcing him to recognize Texas independence. The battle’s rallying cry was “Remember the Alamo!” The Texas Revolution
Troubles between Mexico and Texas continued, because Mexicans would not honor Santa Ana’s forced agreement to Texan independence. • In Texas’s first election, Sam Houston, who led the Texan victory at San Jacinto, was elected President of Texas. • Texans also voted to ask the U.S. to annex, or add, Texas as a state. • Americans had mixed feelings about annexation Opponents • Didn’t want America to take on Texas’s large debt • Northerners didn’t want another slave state in the Union • Texas remained independent for nine years, until President John Tyler allowed it to join the Union under certain conditions. • Texas became a state late in 1845. The Annexation of Texas • Supporters • Wanted more American land • Admired Texans’ fight for freedom • Southerners liked that Texas allowed slavery
The Mexican War • Believing that Texas was still Mexican territory, Mexico cut diplomatic relations with America after it annexed Texas. • James K. Polk, elected as President in 1845, believed in annexation and wanted even more Mexican territory for the U.S., including New Mexico and California. • New Mexico and California had very few American settlers, but the Mexican government had little presence in these regions. • Polk sent a messenger to Mexico to purchase these territories, offering a reduction of Mexico’s debt and up to $30 million in exchange. • No one in Mexico would meet with Polk’s messenger, John Slidell. • Slidell, furious, suggested Mexico should be punished, and a boundary dispute soon after led America to declare war on Mexico in 1846. • This was the beginning of the Mexican War.
The U.S. used an aggressive strategy to win the war: General Stephen Kearny marched west from Kansas to New Mexico and easily took control by capturing Santa Fe. Kearny then went west, hoping to repeat the victory in California. Meanwhile, a group of American rebels in Sonoma, California, defeated the Mexicans and declared California an independent republic. The rebels made a crude flag for their country with a picture of a bear on it, and the incident became known as the Bear Flag Revolt. A month later, U.S. forces arrived and took control of California. American forced under General Zachary Taylor captured towns in northern Mexico. A force under General Winfield Scott took Mexico City. Within months, America had captured New Mexico, California, and Mexico’s capital, forcing Mexico to meet American demands. The Republic of California
Causes Annexation of Texas Boundary dispute between U.S. and Mexico Manifest destiny and expansionism Effects Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexican Cession Gadsden Purchase Debate that lingers to this day Results of the Mexican War • The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican War • Under the treaty, Mexico gave up its claim to Texas, as well as to a huge tract of land that included present-day New Mexico, California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. • This land was known as the Mexican Cession. • The same year the treaty was signed, gold was discovered in California. • In return for the territory, America paid Mexico $15 million and dropped its claim for $3 million in damages. • In 1853 the Gadsden Purchase clarified the treaty boundary and transferred more land to the United States. • Causes and Effects of the Mexican War included