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Gymnosperms. Biology 11. KINGDOM PLANTAE. Vascular Plants Phylum Tracheophyta. Seeds. No Seeds. Seeds enclosed. Seeds ‘naked’. Ferns. Phylum Cycadophyta (cycads) Ginkgophyta (ginkgo) Gnetophyta (shrubs, vines, tuberous root)

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Biology 11



Vascular Plants

Phylum Tracheophyta


No Seeds

Seeds enclosed

Seeds ‘naked’



Cycadophyta (cycads)

Ginkgophyta (ginkgo)

Gnetophyta (shrubs, vines, tuberous root)

Coniferophyta (cone-bearing tree)

seed plants
Seed Plants
  • Protective covering around embryo (seed)
  • Produce cones with seeds on cone scales
  • Seed develops on each scale of cone
  • Seed is not covered therefore naked
    • Gymnosperms: “naked seed”
    • Seeds arenot enclosed by a fruit (ovary)

Reproduction occurs without water

  • Improved conducting tissue: thicker and stronger xylem. Became taller
  • Large, branching root system
adaptations for life on land
Adaptations for life on land
  • Gametophytes are reduced in size, often staying within the parent sporophyte
  • Swimming sperm are replaced with pollen which is dispersed by wind and insects
  • Produce seeds

Seed Plants


cycadophyta the cycads
Cycadophyta- The cycads
  • Resemble palm trees but are cone bearing
  • Have fleshy stems and leathery, featherlike leaves
  • Motile sperm that swim to egg in ovule
ginkgophyta the ginkgos
Ginkgophyta- The Ginkgos
  • Primitive tree
  • Dioecious: has separate male and female trees
  • Leaves are fan shaped and thick with leathery veins
  • Have motile sperm that swim to the egg in the ovule
gnetophyta the gnetophytes
Gnetophyta- the gnetophytes
  • Can be found as shrubs, vines, or massive squat stems
  • Have sperm with no flagella
    • Pollen is transported to ovule (egg) by insects or wind
coniferophyta the conifers
Coniferophyta- the conifers
  • Conifers – cone bearers (separate male and female cones)
  • Many are evergreen and keep their leaves in the winter
  • Can grow very large and to old ages

Are adapted to severe climates and conserving water with leaves, called needles, that are covered with waxy cuticles and are long, sharp, and tend to be flat

  • Have sperm withno flagella
    • Pollen is transported to ovule (egg) by insects or wind
  • There are 2 types of cones:
    • Male cone (Pollen cone)
      • Produces pollen grains (male gametophyte)
    • Female cone (Seed cone)
      • Have female gametophyte that produces ovules (eggs)

Some species of conifers have male and female cones on the same tree, others have separate trees with male and female cones


A female cone lives and grows for several years, becoming much larger than a male cone.

  • An ovule develops on each scale of a female cone. 
    • Inside the ovule, an egg cell is produced. 
  • Male cones produce pollen (male gametophyte)

MALE CONES (with pollen)


With ovules


If fertilization occurs, an embryo grows inside the ovule.  The ovule hardens, becoming a seed.

  • Eventually the scales spread, allowing the seeds to fall. 
  • If conditions are favourable where it falls, the embryo inside the pine seed will grow into a new tree.
  • Growing

Sporophyte called

A seedling

reproductive cycle
Reproductive Cycle
  • Alternation of generations