Gymnosperms. Biology 11. KINGDOM PLANTAE. Vascular Plants Phylum Tracheophyta. Seeds. No Seeds. Seeds enclosed. Seeds ‘naked’. Ferns. Phylum Cycadophyta (cycads) Ginkgophyta (ginkgo) Gnetophyta (shrubs, vines, tuberous root)
Gnetophyta (shrubs, vines, tuberous root)
Coniferophyta (cone-bearing tree)
Are adapted to severe climates and conserving water with leaves, called needles, that are covered with waxy cuticles and are long, sharp, and tend to be flat
Some species of conifers have male and female cones on the same tree, others have separate trees with male and female cones
A female cone lives and grows for several years, becoming much larger than a male cone.
MALE CONES (with pollen)
If fertilization occurs, an embryo grows inside the ovule. The ovule hardens, becoming a seed.