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Water and Sanitation Aspects of Tsunami Recovery. Mark Toy May 1, 2008. ICRC. National Societies. Federation. International Red Cross & Red Crescent Movement. Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross & Red Crescent Movement. International Services Mission.

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Water and Sanitation Aspects of Tsunami Recovery


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    1. Water and Sanitation Aspects of Tsunami Recovery Mark Toy May 1, 2008

    2. ICRC National Societies Federation International Red Cross & Red Crescent Movement

    3. Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross & Red Crescent Movement

    4. International Services Mission International Services helps vulnerable people & communities around the world prevent, prepare for & respond to disasters, complex humanitarian emergencies & life-threatening health conditions.

    5. “Core” International Services Psychosocial Support Preparedness Disaster Response Food Restoring Family Links Armed Conflict Humanitarian Emergencies Water & Sanitation Maternal & Child Health Health Infectious Diseases Promoting the Fundamental Principles & International Humanitarian Law throughout

    6. International Services Finances Note: All costs except those covered by restricted donations are covered by tsunami interest in FY 2006.

    7. NGOs NGOs MIL National Societies NGOs National Societies NGOs “Fog” of International Disaster Response Humanitarian Coordinator MEDIA UNDAC Affected OSSOC Donor Govt’s OCHA Geneva Government Affected Population ICRC UNDP Host National Society Humanitarian Coordinator UNICEF HCR DART CMOC IFRC WFP Humanitarian Coordinator Ambassadors

    8. International Disaster Response ARC International Disaster Response Disaster Planning & Preparedness International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Cash Disaster Strikes! International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Vulnerability & Capacity Relief Supplies 183 National Red Cross & Red Crescent Societies Disaster Response International Response Teams Linking Relief to Development

    9. American Red Cross Tsunami Emergency Response During the first 6 months: • Emergency food assistance to over 1.6 M people • Vaccinations to 1.1 M children • Relief items: tents, sleeping mats, cooking sets & hygiene kits >400,000 people • Psycho-social support >100,000 people • Water & sanitation

    10. American Red Cross Tsunami Recovery Program Goal: Expedite community recovery & reduce chronic vulnerabilities Community Health & Disease Control Disaster Preparedness Restoration & Rebuilding Water & sanitation Psycho-social support Community & school-based health & nutrition Disease control Enhancing disaster preparedness & response capabilities Developing community disaster preparedness plans Restoring Family Links In partnership with US non-governmental organizations (NGOs) & UN agencies, expand recovery & development in affected communities.

    11. Tsunami Recovery Update FY05 emergency response expenditures & projections for Tsunami Recovery FY06-10 1 as of 11/30/05; all totals are approximate. 2Fiscal years (FY), July 1 - June 30 3Per a Jan. 13, 2005 press release, direct support may represent up to 6% of total costs.

    12. Water and sanitation in Indonesia • Over 100 million people in Indonesia lack access to safe water • Only 2% access to sewerage in urban areas is one of the lowest in the world among middle-income countries. • Women in Jakarta report spending US$ 11 per month on boiling water, implying a significant burden for the poor. • Decentralized responsibility for WSS, but no funding. • Annual investment in WSS US$2 per capita (2005 estimate)

    13. Water and sanitation in Indonesia • Diarrhea second leading killer of children under five in the country and accounts for about 20% of child deaths each year. • Every year, at least 300 out of 1,000 Indonesians suffer from water-borne diseases • The absence of an established sanitation network forces many households to rely upon private septic tanks or to dispose of their waste directly into rivers and canals. • As of 2001, an estimated 90% of Jakarta's shallow wells were polluted by domestic waste. Source: Wikipedia

    14. Watsan Challenges in Aceh • One of least developed provinces because of 30 year civil war – distrust of Javanese • Earthquake/tsunami further reduced professional class by 1/3 • High water table exacerbated by earthquake • Logistical difficulties (no road to Aceh Jaya, islands) • Lack of local capacity – local standards (cesspit, leaky septic tanks, shallow well)

    15. Watsan Challenges in Aceh • Competition for staff, materials • Housing construction not considering watsan • Delays in securing land titles, easements • Inconsistent approach by aid groups • Integrating ‘hardware’ with ‘software’ • Pressure to build vs. ‘demand-driven’ approach (relief vs. sustainable development) • Sense of entitlement from emergency phase (cash for work)

    16. American Red Cross challenges Risk averse culture • Program design, scope • Working through national societies • Construction contracts • Umbrella funding agency to UN, NGOs • Bureaucratic method of decision making

    17. American Red Cross challenges • Lack of capacity at time of Tsunami • Lack of human resources support • Stretched again after Katrina (9/05) • Time, scope constraints of funding ‘intent’ • Tsunami program separate from rest of International Services • New staff • Lack of institutional memory • Little staff continuity from emergency phase

    18. Water and Sanitation Program • “Hardware” • Water supply • Sanitation • “Software” • Hygiene promotion (PHAST) • Water and sanitation committees

    19. Temporary Shelters • Cited where land available • Built quickly • Short-term considerations • Trucked water not sustainable • Poor sanitation • Lighting/security issues

    20. Temporary Shelters • Shelter needs – Indonesia - July 2005

    21. Pulo Aceh • British Red Cross shelter • 4 villages • About 250 houses • Phased construction • Temporary shelters/watsan • Permanent facilities • Spring supply – gravity fed, 4 km transmission

    22. Aceh Jaya • Major empasis for Red Cross Movement • Most severe damage • Difficult logistics • District capital Calang – of pre-Tsunami population of 15,000, only 3,000 survived. • In one neighborhood, only 18/2200 survived