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TURKEY AWOS TRAINING 1.0 / ALANYA 2005 TRAINING COURSE ON AUTOMATED WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS ( AWOS ) MODULE C.1: DATA PowerPoint Presentation
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TURKEY AWOS TRAINING 1.0 / ALANYA 2005 TRAINING COURSE ON AUTOMATED WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS ( AWOS ) MODULE C.1: DATA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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TURKEY AWOS TRAINING 1.0 / ALANYA 2005 TRAINING COURSE ON AUTOMATED WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS ( AWOS ) MODULE C.1: DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM SONER KARATAŞ ELECTRONIC OBSERVING SYTEMS DIVISION TURKISH STATE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE. DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM. INTRODUCTION.

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TURKEY AWOS TRAINING 1.0 / ALANYA 2005

TRAINING COURSE ON

AUTOMATED WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS

( AWOS )

MODULE C.1: DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

SONER KARATAŞ

ELECTRONIC OBSERVING SYTEMS DIVISION

TURKISH STATE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE

introduction

DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION

  • Central Processing System
  • Data Acquisition Hardware
      • Signal Conditioning Hardware
      • Data Acquisition Electronics Hardware

Sensor Output Characteristics

Analogue Sensor

Digital Sensor

Intelligent Sensor

  • Data Processing
  • Data Transmission
  • Basic Components of Data Acquisition System
sensors output characteristics

Sensors Output Characteristics:

Depending on their output characteristics,

sensors can be classified as

Analogue Sensor

Digital Sensor

Intelligent Sensor

analogue sensors
Analogue sensors:

The most common sensor output is in the

form of voltage, current, charge, resistance,

or capacitance. Signal conditioning further

converts these basic signals into voltage

signals.

example of analogue sensor pt100 platinum resistance thermometers
Example of Analogue Sensor:PT100 Platinum resistance thermometers:

The principle of operation is to measure the resistance of a platinum element. The most common type (PT100) has a resistance of 100 ohms at 0 C and 138.4 ohms at 100 C.

digital sensors
Digital sensors:

Sensors with parallel digital signal outputs

with information contained in a bit or group

of bits, and sensors with pulse or frequent

output.

intelligent sensors
Intelligent sensors:

Sensors including a microprocessorperforming

basic data acquisition andprocessing functions

and providing anoutput in serial digital or

parallel form.

example of intelligent sensor
Example of Intelligent Sensor:

Transmissometer ( *RVR ) :

* Runway Visual Range

central processing system
Central Processing System:

The core of an AWOSis the CentralProcessingSystem

( CPS ).Ingeneral, the main functions of the CPS are

data acquisition, data processing, data storage, and

data transmission.

data acquisition data collection unit dcu
Data Acquisition ( Data Collection Unit DCU ):

In general, the data acquisition

hardware is composed of:

  • Signal conditioning hardware
    • for preventing unwanted external sources of interference frominfluencing the raw sensor signals
    • for protecting the CPS equipment
    • for adapting signals to make them suitable for further data processing;
data acquisition data collection unit dcu14
Data Acquisition ( Data Collection Unit DCU ):

(b) Data acquisition electronics with analogue

and digital input channels and ports, scanning,

and data conversion equipment to enter the

signals into the CPS memory.

signal conditioning
Signal conditioning
  • Signal conditioning is a vital function in the dataacquisition process.
  • It starts with the properchoice of cables and connectors for connectingthe sensor to the data acquisition electronics.
  • Depending on the sensor and localcircumstances, various signal conditioning

techniques are available.

sensor cables
Sensor cables:
  • Electrical signals from the sensors entering

a data acquisition system will includeunwanted

noise.

  • The major noise transfer mechanisms includecapacitive and inductive coupling.
  • A method of reducing errors due to capacitivecoupling is to employ shielded cables.
  • The additional use of a pair of wires is

effective in reducing electromagnetic coupling.

surge protection
Surge protection

When an AWOS can be subject to unintentional highvoltage inputs, the installation of a protection mechanism is indispensable to avoid possible destruction of the equipment.

surge protection19
Surge protection
  • Highvoltage input can be induced from magnetic fields, static electricity and, especially, from lightning.
two wire transmitters
Two-wire transmitters
  • It is sometimes desirable to preamplify low-level signals close to the sensor to maintain maximum signaltonoise ratio.
  • One form of this kind of signal conditioning is the two-wire transmitter.
i solation digital
Isolation ( Digital )
  • The modules not only isolate, but also convert the inputs into standard voltage levels which can be read by the data acquisition equipment.
i solation analogue
Isolation ( Analogue )
  • Analogue isolation modules are used to protect equipment from contact with high voltages, the breaking of ground loops, and the removal of large common-mode signals.
data acquisition function
Data acquisition function
  • The data acquisition function consists of scanning the output of sensors or sensor conditioning modules at a predetermined rate and translating the signals into computer readable format.
  • To accommodate the different types of meteorological sensors, the hardware for this function is composed of different types of input/output channels, covering possible electrical output characteristics of sensors or signal conditioning modules
data acquisition function24
Data acquisition function
  • To accommodate the different types of meteorological sensors, the hardware for this function is composed of different types of input/output channels, covering possible electrical output characteristics of sensors or signal conditioning modules
analogue inputs
Analogue inputs
  • An analog or analogue signal is any continuously variable signal. It differs from a digital signal in that small fluctuations in the signal are meaningful.
analogue inputs26
Analogue inputs
  • Analogue input channels are of particular significance as most of the commonly used meteorological sensors, such as temperature, pressure, and humidity deliver a voltage signal either directly or indirectly through the sensor conditioning modules.
analogue inputs27
Analogue inputs
  • The data acquisition tasks are the scanning of the channels and their analogue to digital conversion.
  • The A/D converter transforms the original analogue information into computer readable data (digital, binary code).
parallel digital input output
Parallel digital input/output
  • Digital signal is a signal in which discrete steps are used to represent information.
parallel digital input output29
Parallel digital input/output
  • The total number of individual channels is mostly grouped in blocks of eight out of 16 bits with extension possibilities.
  • They are used for individual bit or status sensing or for input of sensors with parallel digital output (e.g. wind vanes with Gray code output).
pulses and frequencies
Pulses and frequencies
  • The number of channels is generally limited to two or four.
  • Typical sensors are wind speed and raingauges.
  • Use is made of low and high speed counters accumulating the pulses in CPS memo­ries.
  • A system that registers pulses or the on-off status of a transducer is known as an event recorder.
serial digital ports
Serial digital ports
  • The ports provide conventional interdevice communications over short (RS232, several metres) to long (RS422/485, several kilometres) distances.
  • Different sensors or measuring systems can be on the same line and input port, and each of the sensors is addressed sequentially by means of coded words.
data processing
Data Processing
  • The data processing hardware is the heart of the CPS and its main functions are the master control of the input/output of data to, and from, the CPS and the proper processing of all incoming data by means of relevant software
data processing34
Data Processing
  • Its operation is governed by a microprocessor.Depending on the application, a mathematical co-processor is added to accelerate the processing speed which is sometimes required for complex computations.
  • The unit can be equipped with different types of memory as random access memories (RAM) for data and program storage, non volatile programmable read-only memories (PROM) for program storage (programs are entered by means of a PROM programmer), and non volatile electrical erasable ROMs (EEPROMS) mostly used for the storage of constants which can be modified directly by software.
data transmission
Data Transmission
  • The data transmission part of the CPS forms the link with the outside world which can be the local observer or the maintenance personnel, a central network processing system, or even users of meteorological information.
  • The equipment is interfaced to the CPS by using commonly available serial and parallel input/output ports.
data transmission36
Data Transmission
  • Data transmission methods in use are: current loop for data communication with private lines for short distances, modems for longer distances on leased telephone lines, or the switched telephone network, telex connection, high, very-high, or ultra-high frequency radio, satellite transmitters/receivers, etc.
basic components of data acquisition system
Basic Components of Data Acquisition System
  • Power Supply
  • RS232-RS485 Converter
power supply
Power Supply
  • The design and the capability of an AWOS depend critically upon the method used to power it.
  • The most important characteristics of an AWOS power supply are high stability and interference-free operation.
  • For safety reasons and because of the widespread use and common availability of 12 V batteries in motor vehicles, consideration should be given to the use of 12 V DC power.
  • Where mains power is available, the 12 V batteries could be float-charged from the main supply.
  • Such a system provides the advantage of automatic backup power in the event of a mains power failure.
power supply39
Power Supply
  • AWOSs deployed at remote sites where no mains power is available must rely upon batteries which may or may not be charged by an auxiliary power source, such as a diesel generator, wind or water-driven generator, or solar cells.
  • However, such low-power systems cannot, in general, support the more complex sensors required for cloud height and visibility measurement which require large amounts of power.
rs232 rs485 converter
RS232-RS485 Converter
  • RS232-RS485 Converter allows the connection of RS232 to RS485 or RS485 to RS232.
conclusion
CONCLUSION

DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

  • Sensor Output Characteristics
  • Central Processing System
  • Data Acquisition Hardware
  • Data Processing
  • Data Transmission
  • Basic Components of Data Acquisition System
thanks
THANKS

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENT

AND YOUR ATTENDANCE

DO YOU HAVE ANY QUESTION ?

Soner Karataş

skaratas@meteor.gov.tr