Pilosa - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

rosina
pilosa n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Pilosa PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 18
Download Presentation
Pilosa
143 Views
Download Presentation

Pilosa

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Pilosa By, Kirk Kunnen

  2. Pilosa Facts • Pilosa in Latin means hairy • Contains anteaters and sloths • Found only in the Americas today • Central and South America • Origins are unclear but can be traced back to South America in the early Tertiary

  3. Phylogeny

  4. Anteater Families • Cyclopediae • Silky Anteater • Myrmecophagidae • Giant Anteater • Northern Tamandua • Southern Tamandua /

  5. Anteaters Characteristics • Specialized to eat ants and termites • Jaws • Became longer snouts • Teeth have been reduced • Tongues have became longer • Spine covered • Very strong forelimbs and claws • For digging up termite nest and ant hills • Opening up tree bark • Can be used in defense against jaguars (Giant anteater) • Walk on knuckles with claws curved under http://animal.discovery.com/search/results.html?focus=video&query=anteaters&search

  6. Adaptive Radiation

  7. Sloth Families • Suborder Folivora • Bradypodidae • Pygmy Three-toed sloth • Brown-throated Three-toed sloth • Pale-throated Three-toed sloth • Maned Three-toed sloth

  8. Sloths Families cont. • Megalonychidae • Hoffman’s Two-toed sloth • Southern Two-toed sloth

  9. Extinct ground sloths Families20,000 years ago • Megatheriidae • megatheriid ground sloths • Mylodontidae • Myylodontid ground sloths • Orophodontidae • orophodontid ground sloths • Scelidotheriidae • Scelidotheriid ground sloths

  10. Sloth Characteristics • Long curved claws used to hang from branches • Slow moving • Specialized in eating leaves • Canine teeth have receded • Now have ever growing peg-like molars • Tree dwelling • Hang upside down • Can swim and move about on the ground if they have to • Fur on their stomach curves to the back to shed rain http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndMKTnSRsKM

  11. Case study • Field Metabolic Rate, Water Flux, and Food Consumption in Three-Toed Sloths (Bradypusvariegatus) • Kenneth Nagy and Gene Montgomery • Study covered • Field energy metabolism • Water fluxes • Efficiency of food consumption • Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone

  12. Case study • Background • Have a resting metabolic rate less than half that of a typical placental mammal • Move slowly • Muscles and nerves function more slowly than typical mammals • The effect of these traits influence there net energetic cost and attendant food requirements

  13. Case Study • Methods • Used doubly labeled water to estimate field energy metabolism and water flux • The decline in hydrogen isotope in a doubly labeled animal is water flux • The washout rates of the isotopes in a measure of CO2 production (metabolic rate) • Food Consumption • Fecal and stomach samples were taken • Analyzed for manganese concentration and energy content in order to estimate dry matter and energy assimilation

  14. Case study • Results • Water influx and efflux where nearly equal • Metabolic rates where highest in males and least in nonreproductive females but the difference was not significant • Diet provides 10.4 metabolizable kJ (g dry food)^-1

  15. Case study Findings • Energy Metabolism • Aspects that contribute to low energy requirements • Low and variable body temperature • Behavioral thermoregulation • Large portion of body mass as metabolically inactive material • Heat-conserving retemirabile in blood vessels in limbs • Slow acting muscle and nerve fibers • Water fluxes • Approximate water balance • Gets all of it’s water requirement from young and old leaves • Energy assimilation • Assimilation efficiency depends on the mix of leaves in the gut

  16. Main Points • Adaptations for specific foods • Anteaters • Forelimbs and Claws • Snout and Tongue • Sloth • Live in trees • Move slow • Have a common ancestor to armadillos • Sloth Digestion and metabolism • Traits that require low energy requirments • Slow metabolism

  17. Sources • http://www.mammalsrus.com/eutheria/pilosa/pilosa.html • Nagy, Kenneth A., and G. Gene Montgomery. "Field Metabolic Rate, Water Flux, and Food Consumption in Three-Toed Sloths (BradypusVariegatus)." Journal of Mammalogy 61.3 (1980): 465-72. Print. Pictures • http://www.blurtit.com/q7510327.html • http://bushwarriors.wordpress.com/2010/10/06/iucn-species-of-the-day-silky-anteater/ • http://www.houstonzooblogs.org/zoo/tag/houston/page/3 • http://www.anteaters.com/tamanduas/ • http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/thezone/animals/life/eat5.htm • http://www.thefullwiki.org/Evidence_of_common_descent • http://www.learnanimals.com/pale-throated-three-toed-sloth/ • http://animalnewsoftheworld.blogspot.com/ • http://www.edgeofexistence.org/mammals/species_info.php?id=63 • http://www.naturfoto-cz.de/brown-throated-three-toed-sloth:bradypus-variegatus-photo-1308.html • http://www.junglewalk.com/info/mammals-information.htm • http://www.theanimalfiles.com/mammals/anteaters_relatives/linnaeuss_two_toed_sloth.html • http://www.flickr.com/photos/seabird/3076501058/ • http://www.coloring-pictures.net/drawings/IceAge/Sid-ground-sloth.php • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jewing/2540054220/ • http://www.nhc.ed.ac.uk/index.php?page=493.500.503

  18. Questions