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Essentials of Fire Fighting , 5 th Edition. Chapter 8 — Rescue and Extrication Firefighter II. Chapter 8 Lesson Goal.

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essentials of fire fighting 5 th edition
Essentials of Fire Fighting,

5th Edition

Chapter 8 — Rescue and Extrication

Firefighter II

chapter 8 lesson goal
Chapter 8 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to operate various kinds of rescue equipment and practice correct extrication procedures at an accident scene following the policies and procedures set forth by the jurisdiction (AHJ).

Firefighter II

specific objectives
Specific Objectives

1. Discuss maintaining emergency power and lighting equipment.

2. Describe characteristics of hydraulic rescue tools.

3. Describe characteristics of nonhydraulic rescue tools.

(Continued)

Firefighter II

specific objectives1
Specific Objectives

4. Discuss cribbing for rescue operations.

5. Describe the characteristics of pneumatic tools.

6. Discuss lifting/pulling tools used in rescue operations.

(Continued)

Firefighter II

specific objectives2
Specific Objectives

7. Explain the size-up process for a vehicle incident.

8. Describe items to look for when assessing the need for extrication activities.

9. Discuss stabilizing vehicles involved in a vehicle incident.

(Continued)

Firefighter II

specific objectives3
Specific Objectives

10. List the three methods of gaining access to victims in vehicles.

11. List the most common hazards associated with wrecked passenger vehicles.

(Continued)

Firefighter II

specific objectives4
Specific Objectives

12. Explain the dangers associated with Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS) and Side-Impact Protection Systems (SIPS).

13. Describe basic actions taken for patient management.

(Continued)

Firefighter II

specific objectives5
Specific Objectives

14. Describe patient removal.

15. Describe laminated safety glass and tempered glass.

16. Discuss removing glass from vehicles.

17. Explain considerations when removing vehicle roof and doors.

(Continued)

Firefighter II

specific objectives6
Specific Objectives

18. Describe common patterns of structural collapse.

19. Describe the most common means of locating hidden victims in a structural collapse.

20. Describe structural collapse hazards.

(Continued)

Firefighter II

specific objectives7
Specific Objectives

21. Describe shoring.

22. Discuss technical rescue incidents.

23. Service and maintain portable power plants and lighting equipment. (Skill Sheet 8-II-1)

(Continued)

Firefighter II

specific objectives8
Specific Objectives

24. Extricate a victim trapped in a motor vehicle. (Skill Sheet 8-II-2)

25. Assist rescue teams. (Skill Sheet 8-II-3)

Firefighter II

maintaining emergency power lighting equipment
Maintaining Emergency Power/Lighting Equipment
  • Review manufacturer’s service manual
  • Inspect spark plugs, plug wires
  • If spark plug damaged or service manual recommends, replace
  • Check equipment carburetor
  • Check fuel level, fill if necessary

(Continued)

Firefighter II

maintaining emergency power lighting equipment1
Maintaining Emergency Power/Lighting Equipment
  • If fuel old, replace with fresh
  • Check oil level, replenish as needed
  • Start generator; run any tests identified in Operator Manual
  • Inspect all electrical cords

(Continued)

Firefighter II

maintaining emergency power lighting equipment2
Maintaining Emergency Power/Lighting Equipment
  • Test operation of lighting equipment
  • Replace light bulbs as necessary
  • Clean work area
  • Document maintenance on appropriate forms/records

Firefighter II

powered hydraulic tools
Powered Hydraulic Tools
  • Operated by hydraulic fluid pumped through special high-pressure hoses
  • Most powered by electric motors or two- or four-cycle gasoline engines
  • May be portable
  • May be mounted on vehicle

Firefighter II

spreaders
Spreaders
  • First tool available to fire/rescue service
  • Capable of pushing, pulling
  • Can produce tons of force at tips
  • May spread as much as 32 inches (800 mm)

Firefighter II

shears
Shears
  • Capable of cutting almost any metal object
  • May be used to cut other materials
  • Capable of producing tons of force
  • Opening spread of approximately 7 inches (175 mm)

Firefighter II

combination spreader shears
Combination Spreader/Shears
  • Two arms with spreader tips
  • Inside edges of arms equipped with cutting shears
  • Excellent for small rapid-intervention vehicles, departments with limited resources
  • Capabilities less than individual units

Firefighter II

extension rams
Extension Rams
  • Straight pushing operations
  • May be used for pulling
  • Useful when pushing farther than shears’ maximum opening distance

(Continued)

Firefighter II

extension rams1
Extension Rams
  • Extend from closed length of 3 feet (1 m) to around 5 feet (1.5 m)
  • Open with tons of pushing force; close with ½ opening force

Firefighter II

porta power tool system
Porta-Power Tool System
  • Operated by transmitting pressure from manual hydraulic pump through high-pressure hose to tool assembly
  • Advantage — Operates in narrow places
  • Disadvantage — Assembly/operation time-consuming

Firefighter II

hydraulic jacks
Hydraulic Jacks
  • Designed for heavy lifting applications
  • Excellent compression device for shoring, stabilizing operations
  • Lifting capabilities up to 20 tons (18 tonnes [t])

Firefighter II

nonhydraulic jacks
Nonhydraulic Jacks
  • Screw jacks
    • Extended/retracted by turning threaded shaft
    • Check for wear after each use
    • Keep clean, lightly lubricated
    • Bar screw jacks
    • Trench screw jacks

(Continued)

Firefighter II

nonhydraulic jacks1
Nonhydraulic Jacks
  • Ratchet-lever jacks
    • Rigid I-beam with perforations in web and a jacking carriage with two ratchets on geared side fitting around I-beam
    • Least stable; can be dangerous
    • Can fail under heavy load

Firefighter II

cribbing
Cribbing
  • Essential in many rescue operations
  • Most commonly used to stabilize objects
  • Wood
  • Plastic
  • Storage

Firefighter II

pneumatic air powered tools
Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools
  • Air chisels
  • Pneumatic nailers

(Continued)

Firefighter II

pneumatic air powered tools1
Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools
  • Impact tools
  • Air knifes

(Continued)

Courtesy of Supersonic Air Knife, Inc.

Firefighter II

pneumatic air powered tools2
Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools
  • Air vacuums
  • Whizzer saws

Firefighter II

tripods
Tripods
  • Create anchor points above manholes, other openings
  • Allow rescuers to be safely lowered into confined spaces and rescuers/victims to be hoisted out

Firefighter II

winches
Winches
  • Excellent pulling tools
  • Usually deployed faster, greater travel/pulling distances, stronger than other lifting/pulling devices
  • Usually behind front bumper of vehicles

(Continued)

Firefighter II

winches1
Winches
  • Most common drives
    • Electric
    • Hydraulic
    • Power take-off
  • Pull by using chains/cables

(Continued)

Firefighter II

winches2
Winches
  • Should be equipped with handheld, remote-control devices
  • Should be positioned as close to objects being pulled as possible

Firefighter II

come alongs
Come-Alongs
  • Portable cable winches operated by manual ratchet levers
  • Attached to secure anchor points
  • Lever rewinds cable
  • Common sizes 1-10 tonnes (0.9-9.1 t)

Firefighter II

chains
Chains
  • Used with winches and come-alongs
  • Only alloy steel chains should be used in rescue work
  • Special alloys available for corrosive/hazardous atmospheres
  • Proof coil chain not suitable for rescue

Firefighter II

pneumatic lifting bags
Pneumatic Lifting Bags
  • Give rescuers ability to lift/displace objects
  • High-pressure bags
  • Low- and medium-pressure bags
  • Lifting bag safety rules

Firefighter II

block and tackle systems
Block and Tackle Systems
  • Convert given amount of pull to working force greater than the pull
  • Useful for lifting/pulling heavy loads

(Continued)

Firefighter II

block and tackle systems1
Block and Tackle Systems
  • Block — Wooden or metal frame containing one or more pulleys called sheaves
  • Tackle — Assembly of ropes used to multiply pulling force

Firefighter II

scene size up
Scene Size-Up
  • Begins as soon as first emergency vehicle approaches accident scene
  • Importance
    • Prevent injury to rescuers
    • Prevents further injury to victims
    • Clarifies required tasks
    • Identifies needed resources

Firefighter II

positioning apparatus
Positioning Apparatus
  • Officer in charge should position according to SOP/situation at hand
  • Position close enough for equipment, supplies to be readily available
  • Should not be so close that it might interfere with other on-scene activities

(Continued)

Firefighter II

positioning apparatus1
Positioning Apparatus
  • First-arriving engine should be positioned to provide protective barrier
  • U.S. DOT recommends headlights be turned off, unless needed for scene illumination
  • At least one traffic lane should be closed to nonemergency traffic

(Continued)

Firefighter II

positioning apparatus2
Positioning Apparatus

Firefighter II

considerations when arriving on scene
Considerations When Arriving On Scene
  • What are traffic hazards; what types of control devices needed?
  • How many/what types of vehicles involved?
  • Where/how are vehicles positioned?
  • How many victims/what is their status?

(Continued)

Firefighter II

considerations when arriving on scene1
Considerations When Arriving On Scene
  • Is there fire or potential?
  • Any hazardous materials involved?
  • Any utilities that may be damaged; if so is this hazardous?
  • Need for additional resources?

Firefighter II

assess immediate area around vehicle
Assess Immediate Area Around Vehicle
  • Number of victims in/around
  • Severity of injuries
  • Condition of vehicle
  • Extrication tasks that may be required
  • Hazardous condition

Firefighter II

assess entire area around scene
Assess Entire Area Around Scene
  • Other vehicles not readily apparent
  • Victims thrown from vehicle
  • Damage to structures/utilities that present hazard

Firefighter II

stabilizing the vehicle
Stabilizing the Vehicle
  • Is vital to prevent further injury
  • Uses cribbing/shoring devices
  • Prevents sudden/unexpected movement of vehicle
  • NEVER test stability by pushing/pulling

(Continued)

Firefighter II

stabilizing the vehicle1
Stabilizing the Vehicle
  • Prevent horizontal motion
    • Chock vehicles’ wheels
    • Do not rely on mechanical systems
  • Prevent vertical motion
    • Jacks
    • Pneumatic lifting bags
    • Cribbing

(Continued)

Firefighter II

stabilizing the vehicle2
Stabilizing the Vehicle
  • Rescuers should avoid placing parts of their bodies under vehicle
  • Vehicles upside down, on side, or on slope should be stabilized using whatever means available
  • Shut down electrical power in vehicle

Firefighter II

methods for gaining access to victims in vehicles
Methods for Gaining Access to Victims in Vehicles
  • Through normally operating door
  • Through window
  • By cutting away parts of vehicle body

Firefighter II

potential hazards of wrecked passenger vehicles
Potential Hazards of Wrecked Passenger Vehicles
  • Oil- and air-filled struts
  • Fuel, other flammable liquids
  • High pressure tires
  • Contents of trunk or vehicle interior

Firefighter II

dangers associated with srs sips
Dangers Associated with SRS, SIPS
  • Accidental activation of SRS or SIPS
    • Reserve energy supply causes systems to deploy even after battery disconnected
    • Activities can activate systems
    • Prevention
    • Some systems in SIPS design do not require power from vehicle’s electrical system

Firefighter II

actions for patient management
Actions for Patient Management
  • Choose easiest route to gain access
  • Rescuer with emergency medical training should enter vehicle to stabilize/protect patient

(Continued)

Firefighter II

actions for patient management1
Actions for Patient Management
  • Rescuers inside vehicle should wear PPE
  • Treatment can be simultaneous with preparation for removal from vehicle
  • Vehicle must be removed from around patient

Firefighter II

patient removal
Patient Removal
  • Package patient properly
  • Cover sharp edges
  • Widen openings
  • Pad edges

Firefighter II

laminated safety glass characteristics
Laminated Safety Glass Characteristics
  • Manufactured from two sheets bonded to sheet of plastic between
  • Most commonly used for windshields, rear windows

(Continued)

Firefighter II

laminated safety glass characteristics1
Laminated Safety Glass Characteristics
  • Produces long, pointed shards with sharp edges
  • Stays attached to laminate and moves as unit when broken
  • Keeps shards of glass from flying about

Firefighter II

tempered glass characteristics
Tempered Glass Characteristics
  • Most commonly used in side windows, rear windows
  • Designed so small lines of fracture spread throughout and glass separates into many small pieces
  • Eliminates long, pointed pieces; can still cause lacerations

Firefighter II

removing laminated glass
Removing Laminated Glass
  • Can seriously weaken vehicle body; leave intact if possible
  • More complicated, time-consuming than removing tempered glass
    • Best method is with saw
    • Hand tools can be used

(Continued)

Firefighter II

removing laminated glass1
Removing Laminated Glass
  • In older vehicles, total windshield removal should be performed before roof laid back or removed
    • Requires several rescuers
    • Passengers inside should be covered with a tarp

Firefighter II

removing tempered glass
Removing Tempered Glass
  • Methods
    • Strike window with sharp, pointed object in lower corner
    • Use spring-loaded center punch
    • Use standard center punch or Phillips screwdriver
    • With pick-head axe or Halligan tool

(Continued)

Firefighter II

removing tempered glass1
Removing Tempered Glass
  • Controlling broken glass
    • Apply sheet of self-adhesive contact paper
    • Apply aerosol spray adhesive

Firefighter II

removing the roof
Removing the Roof
  • Designations A, B, C assigned to vehicle door posts from front to back
    • A-post is front post area
    • B-post is between front and rear doors on four-door; nearest handle on two-door
    • C-post is post nearest handle on rear door of four-door; rear roof post on two-door

(Continued)

Firefighter II

removing the roof1
Removing the Roof
  • Removal methods
    • Cut all roof posts; remove roof entirely
    • Cut front posts, cut relief notches in roof at top of rear door openings, fold roof back
    • Plastics do not bend; remove entire roof
    • Unibody vehicles are prone to collapse

Firefighter II

removing doors
Removing Doors
  • Can be opened from handle side
  • May be removed by inserting spreader in crack on hinge side
  • May be removed by cutting hinges, breaking latch mechanism, compromising door locks

(Continued)

Firefighter II

removing doors1
Removing Doors
  • Plastic door panels may have to be removed to gain access to metal frame
  • Interior plastic molding may need to be removed

Firefighter II

displacing dashboard
Displacing Dashboard
  • May be necessary to free patients pinned under steering wheel and/or wedged under dashboard
  • Steps

Firefighter II

rescue from collapsed buildings
Rescue From Collapsed Buildings
  • Difficulty in reaching victim in structural collapse depends upon conditions
  • In some cases, uninjured/slightly injured occupants can make their way to surface of rubble
  • These should be helped first

(Continued)

Firefighter II

rescue from collapsed buildings1
Rescue From Collapsed Buildings
  • Next, rescue those lightly trapped by debris
  • Rescuing the heavily trapped/seriously injured requires the services of technical rescue team

Firefighter II

pancake collapse
Pancake Collapse
  • Possible in any building where failure of exterior walls results in upper floors and roof collapsing on top of each other
  • Least likely to contain voids in which live victims can be found

Firefighter II

v shaped collapse
V-Shaped Collapse
  • Occurs when outer walls remain intact and upper floors/roof structure fail in middle
  • Offers good chance of habitable void spaces along both outer walls

Firefighter II

lean to collapse
Lean-To Collapse
  • Occurs when one outer wall fails while opposite wall intact
  • Side of floor or roof assembly supported by failed wall drops to floor, forming triangular void

Firefighter II

a frame collapse
A-Frame Collapse
  • Occurs when floor/roof assemblies on both sides of center wall collapse
  • Offers good chance of habitable void spaces on both sides of center wall

Firefighter II

cantilever collapse
Cantilever Collapse
  • When one or more walls of a multistory building collapse leaving floors attached to/supported by remaining walls

(Continued)

Firefighter II

cantilever collapse1
Cantilever Collapse
  • Offers good chance of habitable voids forming above/below supported ends of floors
  • Least stable of all patterns; most vulnerable to secondary/subsequent collapse

Firefighter II

locating hidden victims
Locating Hidden Victims
  • Hailing — Calling out to elicit response from hidden victims
  • Seismic/short-distance radar devices
  • Electronically enhanced acoustic listening devices

(Continued)

Firefighter II

locating hidden victims1
Locating Hidden Victims
  • Search cameras
  • Thermal imaging cameras
  • Search dogs

Firefighter II

environmental hazards
Environmental Hazards
  • Damaged utilities
  • Atmospheric contamination
  • Hazardous materials contamination
  • Darkness

(Continued)

Firefighter II

environmental hazards1
Environmental Hazards
  • Noise
  • Fire
  • Temperature extremes
  • Adverse weather conditions

Firefighter II

physical hazards
Physical Hazards
  • Unstable debris
  • Confined spaces
  • Exposed wiring/rebar
  • Heights

Firefighter II

shoring
Shoring
  • Means by which unstable structures or parts of structures can be stabilized
  • Prevents sudden movement of objects too large to be moved in timely manner

(Continued)

Firefighter II

shoring1
Shoring
  • Not intended to move heavy objects
  • May involve air bags/jacks, cribbing, system of wooden braces

Firefighter II

rescue from trench cave ins
Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins
  • Caused by trench construction
  • Sometimes would-be rescuers are killed
  • Knowing how to make structure safe for entrance and taking time to do so offer best chance of survival

(Continued)

Firefighter II

rescue from trench cave ins1
Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins
  • Rescue operations depend on making site as safe as possible
  • Rescuers should not be sent into trench unless trained/equipped

(Continued)

Firefighter II

rescue from trench cave ins2
Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins
  • Rescue apparatus, nonessential personnel, equipment, spectators should be kept away
  • Safety precautions should be taken

Firefighter II

confined space rescues
Confined Space Rescues
  • Confined space
    • Large enough and configured so that employee can bodily enter/perform assigned work
    • Limited/restricted means of entry/exit
    • Not designed for continuous employee occupancy

(Continued)

Firefighter II

confined space rescues1
Confined Space Rescues
  • Several common types
  • Should only be performed by firefighters with specific training
  • Atmospheric hazards
  • Physical hazards
  • Command post, staging area outside hot zone

(Continued)

Firefighter II

confined space rescues2
Confined Space Rescues
  • Do not enter staging area until IAP developed/communicated
  • Attendant must track personnel, equipment entering/leaving space
  • Equipment
  • Lifeline

(Continued)

Firefighter II

confined space rescues3
Confined Space Rescues
  • O-A-T-H Method
    • O — One tug; OK
    • A — Two tugs; Advance
    • T — Three tugs; Take-up
    • H — Four tugs; Help
  • Air monitoring devices
  • Accountability system

Firefighter II

rescue from caves mines tunnels
Rescue From Caves, Mines, Tunnels
  • Most firefighters not trained/equipped to perform
  • Must be done by those familiar with specific environment

Firefighter II

rescues involving electricity
Rescues Involving Electricity
  • Safety precautions
  • Electrical wires on ground can be dangerous without being touched
  • Ground gradient
  • Rescuers should stay away from downed wires distance equal to one span between poles

Firefighter II

water and ice rescue
Water and Ice Rescue
  • Swimming pools, ponds, low-head dams
  • Rescues
    • Victim stranded, floundering, has been submerged for short time
  • Recoveries
    • Victim submerged for long period of time and likely deceased

(Continued)

Firefighter II

water and ice rescue1
Water and Ice Rescue
  • All appropriate PPE should be worn
  • Methods
    • REACH
    • THROW
    • ROW
    • GO

Firefighter II

ice rescue considerations
Ice Rescue Considerations
  • Because ice is thick, not necessarily strong
  • Victims almost certainly suffering hypothermia
  • Victims may not be able to help
  • Victim’s chances of survival depend on how quickly out of water/into warmth

Firefighter II

ice rescue protocols
Ice Rescue Protocols
  • Instruct victim NOT to try to get out of water until rescuer says so
  • REACH
  • THROW
  • GO

Firefighter II

industrial extrication
Industrial Extrication
  • Can be among most challenging rescue situations
  • Once mechanism stabilized, power should be shut off
  • If problem outside capability of team, outside expertise required

Firefighter II

elevator rescue
Elevator Rescue
  • Usually not a true emergency
  • Usually involves elevators stalled between floors
  • Firefighters should reassure passengers and wait for a mechanic

(Continued)

Firefighter II

elevator rescue1
Elevator Rescue
  • Only an elevator mechanic should perform adjustments to mechanical system
  • Elevator rescue may be necessary; should only be performed by trained personnel
  • Communication with passengers essential

Firefighter II

escalator rescue
Escalator Rescue
  • Stop switches usually on nearby wall, at base of escalator, at point close to handrail in newel base
  • Activating switch stops stairs
  • Should be stopped during rescues
  • Escalator mechanic should be requested when removing victims

Firefighter II

summary
Summary
  • Firefighters must be capable of performing basic rescue and extrication operations as a member of a team.

(Continued)

Firefighter II

summary1
Summary
  • Firefighters must be willing to pursue specialized training in each of the rescue areas, including fireground search and rescue operations, vehicle extrication operations, and a variety of technical rescue operations.

Firefighter II

review questions
Review Questions

1. Describe powered hydraulic tools used in rescue incidents.

2. What are air chisels and pneumatic nailers commonly used for?

3. List four safety rules when using pneumatic lifting bags.

(Continued)

Firefighter II

review questions1
Review Questions

4. Why is stabilizing vehicles involved in incidents important?

5. What are the common means of locating hidden victims in the rubble of a structural collapse?

Firefighter II