From the creators of “Simple & Compound Sentences” Von Steuben’s English Department is proud to present COMPLEX SENTENCES
Simple Sentences Review A simple sentence is also known as an independent clause; this means it has a clear subject (or noun) and predicate (verb). • BTW: A sentence MUST express a complete thought, otherwise it is considered a sentence fragment, a.k.a. an DEPENDENT CLAUSE. Ex. 1 Zeus was the king of all the gods. Ex. 2 His behavior was sometimes dishonorable.
Compound Sentence Review • Compound sentences are created using one of three methods to join two independent clauses together: • Method 1: a comma + a conjunction (FANBOYS word) • Method 2: a semi-colon (;),or • Method 3: a semi-colon + conjunctive adverb. For example (using Method 3): Zeus was the king of all the gods; however, his behavior was not always honorable.
Complex Sentences A dependent clause is also known as a sentence fragment, or a phrase that does not express a complete thought. • Therefore, a complex sentence is created using one of two methods Method 1: independent clause + dependent clause. Ex. Orpheus lost Eurydicebecause he did not obey the gods’ orders. (independent clause) + (dependent clause– can’t stand alone) Method 2: Dependent clause + a comma (,) + independent clause EXAMPLE Because he did not obey the gods’ orders, Orpheus lost Eurydice. (dependent clause, or fragment) (independent clause)
Helpful Hints Hint #1: Complex Sentences often show cause-and-effect in your writing. Hint #2: In order to identify a complex sentence, look for the subordinating conjunction!! Hint #3: There is NO COMMA before the subordinating conjunction.
Subordinating Conjunctions Think: BABAWUWUIST
Now You Try! With a neighbor, write a complex sentence about your childhood hero using BOTH methods (2 mins) Method 1: Independent clause + Dependent clause. Ex. Orpheus lost Eurydicebecause he did not obey the gods’ orders. (independent clause) + (dependent clause– can’t stand alone) Method 2: Dependent clause + a comma (,) + Independent clause EXAMPLE Because he did not obey the gods’ orders, Orpheus lost Eurydice. (dependent clause, or fragment) (independent clause)
…and now for something a little different, allow me to introduce… Compound-complex Sentences
Review • Simple sentences have one main clause and no subordinate clauses • Compound sentences have two or more main clauses, but no subordinate clauses. • Subordinate Clauses (a.k.a. “sentence fragments” are clauses that are missing either a subject or predicate and therefore cannot stand alone) • HINT: Look for BABAWUISTA words as clues
Complex & Compound-Complex Sentences are Slightly Different • A complex sentence has one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses For Example: Because we had the day off, (subordinating clause) we slept-in until the midafternoon. (independent clause)
Compound-Complex Sentences • A compound-complex sentence has more than one main clause and at least one subordinate clause. For Example: Although it was a Tuesday, we slept-in until midafternoon (subordinating clause) (independent clause) because parent-teacher conferences were scheduled for the day (subordinating clause) and while our parents have to come to school, (subordinating clause) we didn’t have to go to our classes that day. (independent clause)
Student Practice • In the Writer’s Choice textbook, pages 543-544, Practice 6-8*. • Read the directions and complete the tasks for Practice 6 & 7 • For Practice 8 although the directions ask for a variety of sentences types, you’ll only need to create 1 of each type (four total): • Simple • Compound • Complex • Compound-Complex *For your convenience, a PDF version of this activity has been uploaded to BOTH vonsteuben.org & the Student Portal