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Adult Health. Developed by Dare Domico, RN, DSN Revised by Jill Ray. Integumentary Disorders. Practice Question 1.

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adult health

Adult Health

Developed by

Dare Domico, RN, DSN

Revised by Jill Ray

practice question 1
Practice Question 1

A client returns the clinic for follow-up treatment following a skin biopsy of a suspicious lesion performed 1 week ago. The biopsy report indicates that the lesion is a melanoma. The nurse understands that which of the following describes a characteristic of this type of a lesion?

  • Melanoma is the most common type of skin cancer.
  • Melanoma is often precipitated by pruritus.
  • Melanoma is highly metastatic
  • Melanoma is characterized by local invasion
practice question 14
Practice Question 1

A client returns to the clinic for follow-up treatment following a skin biopsy of a suspicious lesion performed 1 week ago. The biopsy report indicates that the lesion is a melanoma. The nurse understands that which of the following describes a characteristic of this type of a lesion?

  • Melanoma is the most common type of skin cancer. Basal cell is the most common type.
  • Melanoma is often precipitated by pruritus. Can be part of the assessment findings for skin cancer.
  • Melanoma is highly metastatic highly metastatic – survival dependent upon early dx and tx.
  • Melanoma is characterized by local invasion can metastasize to the brain, lungs, bone, liver, skin….
practice question 2
Practice Question 2

Which lesion best represents Basal Cell Cancer?

2.

1.

3.

4.

practice question 26
Practice Question 2

Which lesion best represents Basal Cell Cancer?

1. Basal Cell

2. Mole

4. Melanoma

3. Squamous Cell

slide7

Basal Cell:

    • Waxy border
    • Papule
    • Red, central crater
    • Metastasis rare
  • Squamous Cell:
    • oozing, bleeding, crusting lesion
    • Potentially metastatic
    • Larger tumors higher risk metastasis.
  • Melanoma:
  • Irregular, circular, bordered lesion
  • Hues of tan, black, blue
  • Rapid infiltration into tissue, rapid metastasis.
slide8

Practice Question 3

  • A client has a superficial skin tear to the arm. The nurse applies which best type of dressing?
  • Dry sterile dressing
  • Wet-to-dry dressing
  • Gelfoam sponge dressing
  • Semipermeable film dressing
slide9

A client has a superficial skin tear to the arm. The nurse applies which best type of dressing?

  • Dry sterile dressing stick to the wound
  • Wet-to-dry dressing not necessary
  • Gelfoam sponge dressing type of enzyme dressing used to tx necrotic tissue
  • Semipermeable film dressing Op-site, duoderm. Allow tissues to heal underneath.
practice question 4
Practice Question 4

A client who is being evaluated for thermal burn injuries to the arms and legs complains of thirst. Which action by the nurse is most appropriate?

1. Give the client small glasses of clear liquids.

2. Keep the client NPO.

3. Allow the client to have full liquids.

4 Order the client a full meal with extra liquids.

practice question 411
Practice Question 4

A client who is being evaluated for thermal burn injuries to the arms and legs complains of thirst. Which action by the nurse is most appropriate?

1. Give the client small glasses of clear liquids.

2. Keep the client NPO. Maintain NPO because burn injuries freq. cause paralytic ileus. Fluids could cause vomiting because of the effect of the burn injury on GI fx. Oral care to alleviate thirst is OK

3. Allow the client to have full liquids.

4 Order the client a full meal with extra liquids.

Note that 1,3, and 4 are similar choices.

practice question 5
Practice Question 5

In the burn unit, a client has partial thickness and full thickness burns over 50% of his body. The nurse has an order for silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene cream). The safest and most therapeutic way of applying this mediation is with a sterile:

  • Tongue blade
  • 4 by 4 gauze pad
  • gloved hand
  • 4 by 4 soaked in sterile saline
slide13
In the burn unit, a client has partial thickness and full thickness burns over 50% of his body. The nurse has an order for silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene cream). The safest and most therapeutic way of applying this mediation is with a sterile:
  • Tongue blade rough surface would be abrasive to the injured skin, and it is too small to be practical for use…
  • 4 by 4 gauze pad the dry gauze pad would stick to the injured skin
  • gloved hand allows for better contact and control of the amt of pressure being applied to the burn area. Allows the nurse to feel the surface blisters without breaking them.
  • 4 by 4 soaked in sterile saline OK – but the gloved hand allows for more precise application and minimal injury to the tissue.
practice question 6
Practice Question 6

A client is NPO and has a NG tube in place after suffering bilateral burns to the legs. The nurse determines that the client’s GI status is least satisfactory if which of the following is noted on assessment?

  • Gastric pH of 3
  • Presence of hypoactive bowel sounds
  • GI drainage that is guaiac negative
  • Absence of abdominal discomfort
practice question 615
Practice Question 6

A client is NPO and has a NG tube in place after suffering bilateral burns to the legs. The nurse determines that the client’s GI status is least satisfactory if which of the following is noted on assessment?

  • Gastric pH of 3 gastric pH should be maintained at 7 or greater using prescribed antacids and histamine h2 receptor-blocking agents. Lowered pH in the absence of fd or tube feedings can lead to erosion of the gastric lining and ulcer development. (Note that normal gastric pH is 1.5-3.5)
  • Presence of hypoactive bowel sounds expected as client is NPO and has suffered burn injury
  • GI drainage that is guaiac negative normal finding – means that it is negative for blood
  • Absence of abdominal discomfort WNL
practice question 7
Practice Question 7

A client is admitted to the emergency department following a burn injury in a house fire. The skin on the client’s trunk is tan, dry, and hard. The skin is edematous but is not very painful. The nurse interprets that this client's burn should be classified as

  • Superficial thickness burn
  • Superficial partial thickness
  • Deep partial thickness
  • Full thickness
practice question 717
Practice Question 7

A client is admitted to the emergency department following a burn injury in a house fire. The skin on the client’s trunk is tan, dry, and hard. The skin is edematous but is not very painful. The nurse interprets that this client's burn should be classified as

  • Superficial thickness burn these burns are painful
  • Superficial partial thickness these burns are painful
  • Deep partial thickness wound surface red, dry, with white areas in deeper areas.
  • Full thickness involve epidermis, dermis, and some subcutaneous fat. Some nerve endings damaged – may be insensitive to touch with little or no pain.
slide19

Superficial Thickness burn

  • Injury to the upper third of the dermis – bld supply to dermis is intact.
  • Mild to severe erythema (pin to red)
  • Skin blanches with pressure
  • Burn painful, tingling, eased by cooling
  • Discomfort lasts about 48 hrs – heals in 3-5 days
  • No scarring and skin grafts not required.
superficial partial thickness burn
Superficial Partial-thickness Burn
  • Injury deeper into dermis, bld supply reduced
  • Large blisters may cover an extensive area
  • Edema present
  • Mottled pin to red base, broken epidermis, with wet, shiny, weeping surface
  • Burn painful, sensitive to cold air
  • Heals 0-21 days with no scarring, minor pigment changes possible
  • Grafts may be needed
deep partial thickness burn22
Deep Partial-thickness Burn
  • Extends into dermis
  • Blister formation usu not seen because dead tissue is thick and sticks to underlying viable dermis
  • Wound surface is red and dry with white areas in deeper parts
  • May/may not blanch, edema is moderate
  • Con convert to full thickness if complications
  • Heals in 3-6 weeks, scar results, skin graft may be necessary
full thickness burn
Full-thickness Burn
  • Involves injury and destruction of the epidermis ad the dermis; wound will not heal by re-epithelializaion, grafting may be required
  • Appears as a dry, hard, leathery eshcar (burn crust or dead tissue that must slough off or be removed form the wound before healing can occur
  • Appears as a waxy white, deep
    • red, yellow, brown, black
  • Injured are appears dry
  • Edema present under eschar
  • Sensation reduced or absent because of nerve ending damage
  • Healing takes weeks to months and dependent on adequ bld supply
  • Must remove eschar and split-or full-thickness skin grafting
  • Scarring and wound contractures likely
deep full thickness
Deep full-thickness
  • Extends beyond the skin into underlying fascia and tissues, damage to the muscle, bone, tendons
  • Injured area appears black and sensation is completely absent
  • Eschar is hard and
    • inelastic
  • Healing takes months
    • and grafts are required
  • Mortality rates are higher for children younger than 4
  • Debilitating disorders (cardiac, respiratory, endocrine, renal disorders occur and hinder healing)
  • Mortality rate is higher with preexisting disorder.
practice question 8
Practice Question 8

A nurse is monitoring the fluid balance of the client with a burn injury. The nurse determines that the client is less than adequately hydrated if which of the following is noted during assessment.?

1. Urine output of 40 ml/hour.

2. Urine that is pale yellow.

3. Urine specific gravity of 1.032

4. Urine pH of 6.

slide26
A nurse is monitoring the fluid balance of the client with a burn injury. The nurse determines that the client is less than adequately hydrated if which of the following is noted during assessment.?

1. Urine output of 40 ml/hour. 30ml/hr is WNL, 40 is OK

2. Urine that is pale yellow. Pale urine is normal – would be dark and concentrated if not well hydrated

3. Urine specific gravity of 1.032 (1.016-1.022)

4. Urine pH of 6. OK – urine pH of 6 is adequate (4.5-8 WNL). Do not monitor urine pH to assess hydration.

practice question 9
Practice Question 9

A home care nurse visits an older client who was discharged from the hospital following diagnostic testing. The client complains of chronic dry skin and episodes of pruritus. Which of the following measures would the nurse provide to the client to alleviate this discomfort?

  • Take baths twice daily using a dilute solution of vinegar and water.
  • Avoid the use of astringents on the skin
  • Avoid the use of emollients on the skin
  • Purchase a dehumidifier for the home.
slide28
A home care nurse visits an older client who was discharged from the hospital following diagnostic testing. The client complains of chronic dry skin and episodes of pruritus. Which of the following measures would the nurse provide to the client to alleviate this discomfort?
  • Take baths twice daily using a dilute solution of vinegar and water. Warm bath or shower per day for 15-20 min with warm water and a mild soap followed immediately by the application of an emollient to prevent evaporation of water form the hydrated epidermis.
  • Avoid the use of astringents on the skinavoid alcohol, astringents, or other drying agents to the skin. tend to have a drying affect on the skin
  • Avoid the use of emollients on the skin need to incr use of emollients
  • Purchase a dehumidifier for the home. A dehumidifier would further dry room air.
practice question 10
Practice Question 10

The evening nurse reviews the nursing documentation in the client’s chart and notes that the day nurse has documented that he client has a stage 2 pressure ulcer (decubitus) in the sacral area. Which of the following would the nurse expect to note on assessment of the client’s sacral area?

  • Intact skin
  • Partial-thickness skin loss of the epidermis
  • Deep, crater-like appearance
  • Presence of sinus tracts
practice question 1030
Practice Question 10

The evening nurse reviews the nursing documentation in the client’s chart and notes that the day nurse has documented that he client has a stage 2 pressure ulcer (decubitus) in the sacral area. Which of the following would the nurse expect to note on assessment of the client’s sacral area?

  • Intact skin
  • Partial-thickness skin loss of the epidermis
  • Deep, crater-like appearance
  • Presence of sinus tracts
slide32

Stage I

(no skin loss)

Stage II

(Shallow crater – involves epidermis and/or dermis)

slide33

Stage III

(Full thickness involving damage/necrosis of subc. Tissue. Does not extend down through underlying fascia)

Stage III or IV

stage iv
Stage IV

Full thickness skin loss with extensive destruction; tissue necrosis; or damage to muscle, bone, or supporting structures.

practice question 11
Practice Question 11

The nurse recognizes which of the following conditions as an oncological emergency? Select all that apply.

1. Cardiac tamponade

2. Leukopenia

3. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH

4. Hypercalcemia

5. Hypophosphatemia

6. Tumor lysis syndrome

slide37
The nurse recognizes which of the following conditions as an oncological emergency? Select all that apply.

1. Cardiac tamponadecould result from direct pressure from a tumor, complication from chemo (decrease platelets increase chances of hemorrhage)

2. Leukopenia

3. Syndrome of inappropriate ADHtumors can produce, secrete, or stimulate substances that mimic ADH hormone – low serum Na levels result and can lead to seizures, coma, death

4. Hypercalcemialate manifestation of extensive malignancy

5. Hypophosphatemia

6. Tumor lysis syndromelarge quantities of tumor cells are destroyed rapidly. Can lead to renal failure.

practice question 12
Practice Question 12

The nurse is giving discharge instructions to a client with cancer who is taking doxorubicin (Adriamycin). What is important to tell the client.

1. Avoid folic acid intake.

2. Increase intake of oral fluids.

3. Report symptoms of dyspnea.

4. Report symptoms of hematuria.

practice question 1239
Practice Question 12

The nurse is giving discharge instructions to a client with cancer who is taking doxorubicin (Adriamycin). What is important to tell the client?

1. Avoid folic acid intake.

2. Increase intake of oral fluids.

3. Report symptoms of dyspnea. This medication can cause cardio toxicity, cardiomyopathy, EKG changes. CHF (dyspnea, tachycardia, peripheral edema) and myocardial toxicity are potential adverse reactions.

4. Report symptoms of hematuria.

practice question 13
Practice Question 13

A client had a modified radical mastectomy of the left breast. What would be important for the nurse to include in a discharge teaching plan? (Select all that apply)

1. Avoid any needle sticks in the left arm.

2. Avoid abduction & external rotation of left arm.

3. Begin pendulum arm swings & full ROM immediately.

4. Elevate left arm on pillows to prevent edema.

5. Have all blood pressure readings taken on the right arm.

6. Massage wound site with essential oils once incision has healed.

slide41
A client had a modified radical mastectomy of the left breast. What would be important for the nurse to include in a discharge teaching plan? (Select all that apply)

1. Avoid any needle sticks in the left arm.

2. Avoid abduction & external rotation of left arm. Gradual abduction and external rotation of the affected arm is encouraged. May be more comfortable elevating the arm.

3. Begin pendulum arm swings & full ROM immediately. These activities are started after the incision has healed.

4. Elevate left arm on pillows to prevent edema.

5. Have all blood pressure readings taken on the right arm.

6. Massage wound site with essential oils once incision has healed. No indication for this

postoperative mastectomy
Postoperative Mastectomy
  • Gradual abduction and external rotation of the affected arm is encouraged.
  • Avoid activities that might lead to the development of lymphedema
  • Begin finger, wrist, and hand exercises to facilitate muscle contraction and to help prevent edema.
  • Active exercises, such as pendulum swings and wall climbing are started after the incision has healed
practice question 1443
Practice Question 14

A client has developed stomatitis while receiving chemotherapy. What would be an appropriate intervention to suggest for the pain associated with the stomatitis?

1. Use lemon-flavored glycerin swabs

2. Apply antacid coating solutions and viscous lidocaine

3. Brush oral plaques off with a soft toothbrush.

4. Have client swish mouth with weak hydrogen peroxide solution

practice question 1444
Practice Question 14

A client has developed stomatitis while receiving chemotherapy. What would be an appropriate intervention to suggest for the pain associated with the stomatitis?

1. Use lemon-flavored glycerin swabs could cause pain

2. Apply antacid coating solutions and viscous lidocaine Antacids, Benadryl, and viscous lidocaine have been mixed in equal proportions to use as a component of oral care.

3. Brush oral plaques off with a soft toothbrush. could cause pain

4. Have client swish mouth with weak hydrogen peroxidesolution

practice question 15
Practice Question 15

A client with breast cancer is being treated with external radiation therapy. What will be important for the nurse to teach the client regarding skin care of the area?

1. Use mild soap and do not rub with abrasive materials.

2. Do not use any lotions on the area being treated.

3. Expose the area to sunshine to maximize healing.

4. Wear clothing and bras that support the area.

slide46
A client with breast cancer is being treated with external radiation therapy. What will be important for the nurse to teach the client regarding skin care of the area?

1. Use mild soap and do not rub with abrasive materials. Skin being tx is fragile and easily damaged. Mild soap and thorough rinsing with warm water.

2. Do not use any lotions on the area being treated. A hydrophilic moisture lotion can be used if the skin becomes dry.

3. Expose the area to sunshine to maximize healing. The area cannot be exposed to sun

4. Wear clothing and bras that support the area. Clothing should be loose and nonbinding.

practice question 16
Practice Question 16

Which of the following is a priority nursing intervention for a client with a vaginal radium implant?

1. Clamp and drain the Foley catheter at intervals.

2. Provide a high residue diet.

3. Place the client in a semiprivate room.

4. Raise the head of the bed no more than 20 degrees.

slide48
Which of the following is a priority nursing intervention for a client with a vaginal radium implant?

1. Clamp and drain the Foley catheter at intervals.

2. Provide a high residue diet. Good idea – maintain optimal GI fx. Note that “4” is the BEST choice but that this is appro.

3. Place the client in a semiprivate room. No -Private room, private bath

4. Raise the head of the bed no more than 20 degrees. Once the implant is in place, important to keep in the exact location. HOB only raised slightly if at all after placement.

practice question 17
Practice Question 17

The client is hospitalized for insertion of an internal cervical radiation implant. While giving care, the nurse finds the radiation implant in the bed. The initial action by the nurse is to

  • Call the MD
  • Pick up the implant with gloved hands and flush it down the toilet
  • Reinsert the implant into the vagina immediately
  • Pick up the implant with long handled forceps and place it in a lead container
practice question 1750
Practice Question 17

The client is hospitalized for insertion of an internal cervical radiation implant. While giving care, the nurse finds the radiation implant in the bed. The initial action by the nurse is to

  • Call the MD yes, but initial action is “4”
  • Pick up the implant with gloved hands and flush it down the toilet do not touch the implant
  • Reinsert the implant into the vagina immediately inappro action.
  • Pick up the implant with long handled forceps and place it in a lead container Key word is “initial” action.
practice question 18
Practice Question 18

The nurse is caring for a client experiencing Hematologic toxicity as a result of chemotherapy. The nurse develops a plan of care for the client. The nurse plans to

  • Restrict all visitors
  • Restrict fluid intake
  • Insert an indwelling urinary catheter to prevent skin breakdown
  • Restrict fresh fruits and vegetables in the diet
practice question 1852
Practice Question 18

The nurse is caring for a client experiencing Hematologic toxicity as a result of chemotherapy. The nurse develops a plan of care for the client. The nurse plans to

  • Restrict all visitors eliminate this choice because of the term “all”. The client is protected from persons with known infections.
  • restrict fluid intake unrealistic to restrict fluids in chemotherapy client who is at risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalance. Need to encourage fluids.
  • Insert an indwelling urinary catheter to prevent skin breakdown risk of infection, other noninvasive measures can be used if indicated
  • Restrict fresh fruits and vegetables in the dietimmunocompromised client needs a low-bacteria diet. Includes avoiding fresh fruits and vegetables and thorough cooking of all foods.
practice question 19
Practice Question 19

The client is diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia and is scheduled for transrectal ultrasound and drawing of a prostate-specific antigen level. The client says to the nurse, “ I can’t remember. Can you tell me again why I need these tests to be done?” The nurse responds knowing that the tests

  • Help to rule out the presence of cancer
  • Specifically predict the course of benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Pinpoint the likelihood of developing urinary obstruction
  • Give an indication of whether intermittent self-catheterization is needed.
slide54
The client is diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia and is scheduled for transrectal ultrasound and drawing of a prostate-specific antigen level. The client says to the nurse, “ I can’t remember. Can you tell me again why I need these tests to be done?” The nurse responds knowing that the tests
  • Help to rule out the presence of cancer
  • Specifically predict the course of benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Pinpoint the likelihood of developing urinary obstruction
  • Give an indication of whether intermittent self-catheterization is needed.

diagnostic test do not predict the course of a disease – likelihood of developing complications (i.e. obstruction)

practice question 20
Practice Question 20

A nurse is reviewing the lab results of a client with leukemia and notes that the absolute neutrophil count is decreased. The nurse interprets that the client is at risk for

1. Infection

2. Bleeding

3. Anemia

4. Dehydration

practice question 2056
Practice Question 20

A nurse is reviewing the lab results of a client with leukemia and notes that the absolute neutrophil count is decreased. The nurse interprets that the client is at risk for

1. Infection

2. Bleeding platelets are low

3. Anemia H/H low

4. DehydrationSG of urine can evaluate; skin turgor; Serum Na can suggest hydration status

practice question 21
Practice Question 21

The client with cancer is receiving chemotherapy and develops thrombocytopenia. The nurse identifies which intervention as the highest priority in the nursing plan of care?

  • Ambulation 3 times daily
  • Monitoring temperature
  • Pad side rails and sharp corners of the bed and furniture
  • Monitoring for pathological fractures
slide58
The client with cancer is receiving chemotherapy and develops thrombocytopenia. The nurse identifies which intervention as the highest priority in the nursing plan of care?
  • Ambulation 3 times daily important in the plan of care but not related directly to thrombocytopenia
  • Monitoring temperature monitoring for infection, important esp if dealing with a leukemia pt – not the best choice for a pt with thrombocytopenia.
  • Pad side rails and sharp corners of the bed and furniture thrombocytopenia indicates a decr in number of platelets in circulating blood – client is at risk of bleeding.
  • Monitoring for pathological fractures important in the plan of care but not related directly to thrombocytopenia
practice question 22
Practice Question 22

A nurse is caring for the 25-year-old client will undergo bilateral orchidectomy for testicular cancer. Which of the following statements by the nurse would be most helpful in exploring the client's concerns about loss of reproductive ability?

  • “Has the doctor told you that you will not be able to have children?”
  • “You must be sad that you won't be able to have children after surgery.”
  • “Do you feel that the doctor has told you all you need to know about the upcoming surgery?”
  • “Share with me any concerns about how this surgery will affect you in the future.”
practice question 2260
Practice Question 22

A nurse is caring for the 25-year-old client will undergo bilateral orchidectomy for testicular cancer. Which of the following statements by the nurse would be most helpful in exploring the client's concerns about loss of reproductive ability?

  • “Has the doctor told you that you will not be able to have children?” yes/no
  • “You must be sad that you won't be able to have children after surgery.” yes/no
  • “Do you feel that the doctor has told you all you need to know about the upcoming surgery?” yes/no
  • “Share with me any concerns about how this surgery will affect you in the future.”
pituitary gland
Hypopituitarism

Decr secretion of:

growth hormone,

gonadotropic hormones,

thyroid-stimulating hormone,

adrenocorticotropic hormone, anti-diuretic hormone

Assessment:

Obesity (GH, TSH)

Decr CO (GH, ADH)

Infertility, sexual dysfx (gonadotropins, ACTH)

Fatigue, low BP (TSH, ADH, ACTH, GH)

Tx

Emotional support

Hormone replacement

education

Hyperpituitarism

Incr secretion of

Growth hormone

Other pituitary hormones may also be involved…can see Cushing’s syndrome

Assessment

Large hands/feet

Thickening /protrusion of the jaw

Arthritic changes

Visual disturbances

Diaphoresis

Oily, rough skin

Organomegaly

Hypertension

Dysphagia

Deepening of the voice

Tx

Emotional support

Frequ skin care

Pain management for joint pain

Prepare for radiation/hypophysectomy if planned

Pituitary Gland
syndrome of inappropriate adh siadh vs diabetes insipidus
Diabetes Insipidus

Decr secretion of ADH (opposes Diuresis – decre secretion would mean that the body would loose large quantities of fluid via the u/o)

Assessment:

Polyuria (4-24 L/day), Polydipsia, Dehydration

Inability to concentrate urine (sg 1.006 or lower)

Fatigue, muscle pain, weakness, h/a

Postural hypotension, tachycardia

Tx:

Monitor v/s and neuro and CV status

Safety: postural hypotension

Monitor electrolytes

Monitor I/O, wt, serum osmolality, urine s.g.

Restrict foods, liqu that produce diuresis

Diabinese

Pitressin, desmopressin acetate

Medic alert bracelet

SIADH

Incr secretion of ADH (the body would retain fluid)

Assessment:

s/s fluid volume overload

LOC changes

Wt gain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting

Hyponatremia (dilutional)

Hypertension, tachycardia

Tx

Monitor v/s

Safety: altered LOC

I/O, daily wt

Monitor electrolytes, serum/urine osmolality,

Restrict fluid intake

Adm diuretics and IV fluids

Demeclocycline

Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH(SIADH) vsDiabetes Insipidus
adrenal gland
Addison’s disease

Hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones

Assessment:

Lethargy, fatigue, muscle weakness

GI disturbances

Wt loss

Menstrual changes/impotence

Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia

Hyperkalemia

Hypercalcemia

Postural hypotension

Hyperpigmentation of skin

Cushing’s disease

Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids

Assessment:

Muscle wasting, weakness

Moon face, buffalo hump

Truncal obesity, thin extremities

Wt gain

Hirsutism (females)

Hyperglycemia, hypernatremia

Hypokalemia, hypocalcemia

Hypertension

Fragile skin that easily bruises

Reddish-purple striae on the abd and upper thighs

Adrenal Gland
thyroid gland
Hypothyroidism

Decr secretion of T3 and T4

Decr rate of body metabolism

Assessment:

Lethargy

Weakness, muscle aches, paresthesias

Intolerance to cold

Wt gain

Dry skin, hair loss

Bradycardia

Constipation

Generalized puffiness/edema around the eyes and face (myxedema)

Forgetfulness/loss of memory

Menstrual distrubances

Cardiac enlargement, CHF

Perhaps goiter

Hyperthyroidism

Incr secre of T3 and T4

Incr rate of body metabolism

Graves’ Disease common cause/Toxic diffuse goiter

Assessment :

Enlarged thyroid

Palpitations, cardiac dysrhthmias

Exophthalmos

Hypertension

Heat intolerance

Diaphoresis

Wt loss

Diarrhea

Smooth, soft skin, hair

Nervousness/fine tremors if hands

Personality changes such as irritability/agitation/mood swings

Thyroid Gland
parathyroid gland
Hypoparathyroidism

Decr secr of parathyroid hormone (causes decrease in Ca and incr in phosphorus)

Assessment

s/s of tetany

Hypocalcemia/ hyperphosphatemia

Numbness/tingling in the face

Muscle cramps/abd cramps

Positive Trousseau’s sign (carpal spasm) or Chvostek’s sign (facial spasm)

Hypotension

Anxiety, irritability, depression

Hyperparathyroidism

Hypersecr of Parathyroid hormone (incr in Ca levels, decr in phos)

Assessment:

Hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia

Fatigue, muscle weakness

Skeletal pain/tenderness

Bone deformities/pathological fractures

Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain

Wt loss

Constipation

Hypertension

Cardiac dysrhthmias

Renal stones

Parathyroid Gland
practice question 23
Practice Question 23

The ER nurse planning care for a client with a diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome knowing that the hyperglycemia results from

1. increased use of glucose

2. increased production of glucose.

3. overproduction of insulin

4. Over hydration

practice question 2368
Practice Question 23

The ER nurse planning care for a client with a diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome knowing that the hyperglycemia results from

1. increased use of glucose this would cause hypoglycemia

2. increased production of glucose. Note that the stem asks for the cause of the hyperglycemia

3. overproduction of insulin this would cause hypoglycemia

4. Over hydration these pts suffer from dehydration

diabetic ketoacidosis vs hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome
DKA

Complication of Type I DM

Occurs with severe insulin deficiency

Clinical manifestations: hyperglycemia, dehydration, ketosis, acidosis

Tx:

restore bld volume,

tx dehydration,

tx hyperglycemia,

correct electrolyte imbalance

Monitor potassium levels

HHNS

Extreme hyperglycemia without ketosis or acidosis

Occurs most often in individuals with Type II DM

Ketosis and acidosis do not occur

Clinical manifestations: CNS alterations, dehydrationor electrolyte loss

Tx:

Similar to DKA

Fluid replacement, correct electrolyte imbalance,

Administer insulin

Rehydration alone may decrease glucose levels

Diabetic Ketoacidosis vs Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome
practice question 24
Practice Question 24

The client with diabetes has been instructed in the dietary exchange system. The client ask if bacon is allowed in the diet. Which response is most appropriate?

1. “Bacon is much too high in fat.”

2. “Bacon is not allowed.”

3. “One strip of bacon may be eaten if one teaspoon of butter is omitted.”

4. “Bacon may be eaten if you eliminate one meat item from your diet.”

practice question 2471
Practice Question 24

The client with diabetes has been instructed in the dietary exchange system. The client ask if bacon is allowed in the diet. Which response is most appropriate?

1. “Bacon is much too high in fat.”

2. “Bacon is not allowed.”

3. “One strip of bacon may be eaten if one teaspoon of butter is omitted.”

4. “Bacon may be eaten if you eliminate one meat item from your diet.”

practice question 25
Practice Question 25

A client with type 1 diabetes reports recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia with exercising. Which statement by the client indicates an inadequate understanding of the peak action of NPH insulin & exercise? “The best time for me to exercise is

1. in the afternoon.”

2. after I eat.”

3. after breakfast.”

4. after my morning snack.”

practice question 2573
Practice Question 25

A client with type 1 diabetes reports recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia with exercising. Which statement by the client indicates an inadequate understanding of the peak action of NPH insulin & exercise? “The best time for me to exercise is

1. in the afternoon.” NPH insulin peaks in 6-14 hours.

2. after I eat.”

3. after breakfast.”

4. after my morning snack.”

practice question 2674
Practice Question 26

A client with type 1 diabetes reports vomiting & diarrhea with no food intake or medications for 36 hours. Which additional statement indicates a need for further teaching? “I need to

1. stop my insulin.”

2. increase my fluid intake.”

3. call the physician because of these symptoms.”

4. monitor my blood glucose every 3 to 4 hours.”

practice question 2675
Practice Question 26

A client with type 1 diabetes reports vomiting & diarrhea with no food intake or medications for 36 hours. Which additional statement indicates a need for further teaching? “I need to

1. stop my insulin.” Type I DM need to maintain routine schedule of insulin administration unless prescribed otherwise by MD. Note that BG often increases with stress/illness.

2. increase my fluid intake.” should do this

3. call the physician because of these symptoms.” should do this

4. monitor my blood glucose every 3 to 4 hours.” should do this

practice question 27
Practice Question 27

A client with diabetes has a glycosylated hemoglobin A1C level of 9%. Based on this test result, the nurse plans to teach the client about the need to

1. avoid infection.

2. take in adequate fluids.

3. prevent hyperglycemia.

4. prevent hypoglycemia.

practice question 2777
Practice Question 27

A client with diabetes has a glycosylated hemoglobin A1C level of 9%. Based on this test result, the nurse plans to teach the client about the need to

1. avoid infection.

2. take in adequate fluids.

3. prevent hyperglycemia. Goal for pt with DM is less than 7.5 %. This value provides an estimate of BGL for the prior 3-4 months.

4. prevent hypoglycemia.

Pt without DM value should be 4-6%.

practice question 28
Practice Question 28

A nurse is providing instructions to a client newly diagnosed with diabetes regarding insulin administration. A mixture of NPH and regular insulin is ordered. Sequence the following steps of this procedure:

  • inject air equal to the amount of NPH insulin into the vial of NPH insulin.
  • inject air equal to the amount of regular insulin into the vial of regular insulin
  • draw up the correct dosage of regular insulin
  • draw up the correct dosage of NPH insulin

1, 2, 3, 4

practice question 29
Practice Question 29

A nurse is providing home care instructions to a client with a diagnosis of Addison’s disease. Which statement by the client indicates a need for further instructions? “I need

1. to wear a Medic Alert bracelet.”

2. to take daily medications for a limited period of time.”

3. an increased dose of glucocorticoid medication during stressful minor illnesses.”

4. to purchase a travel kit that contains cortisone.”

practice question 2980
Practice Question 29

A nurse is providing home care instructions to a client with a diagnosis of Addison’s disease. Which statement by the client indicates a need for further instructions? “I need

1. to wear a Medic Alert bracelet.” true

2. to take daily medications for a limited period of time.” chronic disease will take meds from now on…

3. an increased dose of glucocorticoid true medication during stressful minor illnesses.”

4. to purchase a travel kit that contains cortisone.” true

practice question 30
Practice Question 30

A client has returned to the unit following a thyroidectomy complaining of tingling sensations around the mouth and in the fingers. The nurse would next assess the results of which serum lab study?

1. Sodium

2. Potassium

3. Calcium

4. Magnesium

practice question 3082
Practice Question 30

A client has returned to the unit following a thyroidectomy complaining of tingling sensations around the mouth and in the fingers. The nurse would next assess the results of which serum lab study?

1. Sodium

2. Potassium

3. Calcium because of accidental damage to the parathyroid which regulates CA levels.

4. Magnesium

practice question 31
Practice Question 31

Which medication will the nurse have available for emergency treatment of tetany in the client who has had a thyroidectomy?

1. Calcium chloride

2. Potassium chloride

3. Magnesium sulfate

4. Sodium bicarbonate

practice question 3184
Practice Question 31

Which medication will the nurse have available for emergency treatment of tetany in the client who has had a thyroidectomy?

1. Calcium chloride supplemental Ca is indicated if s/s of tetany develop.

2. Potassium chloride

3. Magnesium sulfate

4. Sodium bicarbonate

practice question 32
Practice Question 32

A nurse is preparing to care for a client following parathyroidectomy. The nurse plans care anticipating which postoperative order?

  • Place flat with head and neck immobilized.
  • Rectal temps only until discharge.
  • Maintain endotracheal tube for 24 hours.
  • Continuous mist of room air or oxygen.
practice question 3286
Practice Question 32

A nurse is preparing to care for a client following parathyroidectomy. The nurse plans care anticipating which postoperative order?

1. Place flat with head and neck immobilized. Do not need to immobilize the neck.

2. Rectal temps only until discharge. Oral, axillary temps are OK

3. Maintain endotracheal tube for 24 hours. Not necessarily intubated.

4. Continuous mist of room air or oxygen.Humidity will asst to decr postop inflammation.

practice question 33
Practice Question 33

A nurse is caring for a client admitted to the emergency room with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In the acute phase the priority nursing action is to prepare to

1. administer regular insulin IV.

2. administer 5% dextrose IV.

3. correct the acidosis.

4. apply an electrocardiogram monitor.

practice question 3388
Practice Question 33

A nurse is caring for a client admitted to the emergency room with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In the acute phase the priority nursing action is to prepare to

1. administer regular insulin IV.

2. administer 5% dextrose IV.

3. correct the acidosis. True

4. apply an electrocardiogram monitor. Probably true

practice question 34
Practice Question 34

A nurse is preparing the bedside for a postoperative parathyroidectomy client. The nurse ensures that which medical equipment is at the bedside?

1. Underwater seal chest drainage.

2. Tracheotomy set.

3. Intermittent gastric suction.

4. Cardiac monitor.

practice question 3490
Practice Question 34

A nurse is preparing the bedside for a postoperative parathyroidectomy client. The nurse ensures that which medical equipment is at the bedside?

1. Underwater seal chest drainage.

2. Tracheotomy set. Surgery very close to trachea. Postop swelling could close the airway and create the need for Tracheostomy.

3. Intermittent gastric suction.

4. Cardiac monitor.

practice question 35
Practice Question 35

The nurse is assessing a client with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). What would the nurse expect to find on the laboratory values?

1. Serum sodium=150 mEq/L and low urine osmolality.

2. Serum potassium=5 mEq/L and low serum osmolality.

3. Serum sodium=120 mEq/L and low serum osmolality.

4. Serum potassium=3mEq/L and high serum osmolality.

practice question 3592
Practice Question 35

The nurse is assessing a client with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). What would the nurse expect to find on the laboratory values?

1. Serum sodium=150 mEq/L and low urine osmolality.

2. Serum potassium=5 mEq/L and low serum osmolality.

3. Serum sodium=120 mEq/L and low serum osmolality. SIADH causes the body to retain water. The serum sodium will be low (dilutional hyponatremia) and the serum osmolality will be low. Note Na levels are 135-145.

4. Serum potassium=3mEq/L and high serum osmolality.

syndrome of inappropriate adh siadh
Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
  • Excessive Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) is released.
  • ADH hormone opposes diuresis – which means that water is retained even when the plasma (serum) osmolality is normal.
  • As a result of extracellular fluid expansion, serum osmolality decreases.
  • Na levels decline because of the excess fluid volume.
practice question 36
Practice Question 36

A client has been receiving vasopressin therapy for treatment of diabetes insipidus. What will the nurse evaluate to assist in determining the therapeutic response to this medication?

  • Urine specific gravity
  • Blood glucose
  • Vital signs
  • Oxygen saturation levels
practice question 3695
Practice Question 36

A client has been receiving vasopressin therapy for treatment of diabetes insipidus. What will the nurse evaluate to assist in determining the therapeutic response to this medication?

  • Urine specific gravity vasopressin alleviates polyuria by incr ADH secretion. Urine SG will incr as the urine is less dilute and will return to WNL
  • Blood glucose
  • Vital signs
  • Oxygen saturation levels
practice question 37
Practice Question 37

A nurse is caring for a client following a cholecystectomy via an abdominal incision. What is the best position for this client?

1. Side-lying position, to prevent aspiration.

2. Semi-fowler’s position, to facilitate breathing.

3. Supine, to decrease strain on the incision line.

4. Prone, to reduce nausea.

slide98
A nurse is caring for a client following a cholecystectomy via an abdominal incision. What is the best position for this client?

1. Side-lying position, to prevent aspiration.

2. Semi-fowler’s position, to facilitate breathing. Note that the incision for this procedure is high on the abdomen and postop pain/discomfort can hinder respirations (lung expansion)

3. Supine, to decrease strain on the incision line.

4. Prone, to reduce nausea.

practice question 38
Practice Question 38

When teaching a client with hepatitis C who is receiving interferon and ribavirin therapy, the nurse encourages the client to eat

1. small frequent meals, high in carbohydrates.

2. small frequent meals, high in proteins.

3. 3 well balanced meals daily, high in carbohydrates.

4. 3 well balanced meals daily, but with minimal fluid intake.

slide100
When teaching a client with hepatitis C who is receiving interferon and ribavirin therapy, the nurse encourages the client to eat

1. small frequent meals, high in carbohydrates. Small frequ meals are recommended because of the drug’s s/e of nausea, vomiting, fatigue.

2. small frequent meals, high in proteins.

3. 3 well balanced meals daily, high in carbohydrates.

4. 3 well balanced meals daily, but with minimal fluid intake.

practice question 39
Practice Question 39

The nurse is caring for a client who has a bleeding duodenal ulcer. Which of the following assessment data would indicate gastric perforation?

1. Increasing abdominal distention and rigid abdomen

2. Decreasing hemoglobin and hematrocrit with bloody stools.

3. Diarrhea with increased bowel sounds and hypovolemia.

4. Decreasing blood pressure with tacycardia and disorientation.

slide102
The nurse is caring for a client who has a bleeding duodenal ulcer. Which of the following assessment data would indicate gastric perforation?

1. Increasing abdominal distention and rigid abdomen Perforation is characterized by incr distention and a “board-like” abdomen.

2. Decreasing hemoglobin and hematrocrit with bloody stools. May be seen with hemorrhage

3. Diarrhea with increased bowel sounds and hypovolemia. May be seen with hemorrhage

4. Decreasing blood pressure with tacycardia and disorientation. May be seen with hemorrhage

practice question 40
Practice Question 40

Which of the following interventions has the highest priority for a client following a esophagogastroduodenoscopy?

1. Assessing for the return of the gag reflex.

2. Giving warm gargles for a sore throat.

3. Monitoring complaints of heartburn.

4. Monitoring the temperature.

slide104
Which of the following interventions has the highest priority for a client following a esophagogastroduodenoscopy?

1. Assessing for the return of the gag reflex. ABC’s

2. Giving warm gargles for a sore throat. Psychosocial

3. Monitoring complaints of heartburn.

4. Monitoring the temperature. Important but would be a later complication