Anti Oxidants • Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. • Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables. They are also available as dietary supplements.
Examples of antioxidants include: • Beta-carotene • Lutein • Lycopene • Selenium • Vitamin A • Vitamin C • Vitamin E
Diet, Diabetes, and Hypoglycemia • Diabetes- (also called diabetes mellitus) a disease in which the body produces little or no insulin. • Insulin –a hormone that regulates the blood sugar level. • First treated by diet and exercise.
If needed medications or insulin are used. • Hypoglycemia – a condition in which the pancreas produces too much insulin. - causing blood sugar to be low. • Causes people to be: dizzy, weak, confused • Need to eat to restore blood sugar levels.
Food Allergies/ Intolerances • Food Allergy – an abnormal response of the immune system to the food. • Can cause severs illness and some can be deadly. • Common foods: • In children: eggs, milk, peanuts. • In adults: shellfish, peanuts, fish, eggs.
Rare –only 2% of adults have food allergies. • 4 – 8% of children have food allergies – but many out grow them. • Anaphylaxis – severe reaction –throat closing, wheezing, cardiac arrest. • Food Intolerance: abnormal response not caused by immune system.
Lactose Intolerance – milk • Celiac Disease – allergic to gluten • B – Bran • R – Rye • O – Oats • W – Wheat • All of these contain gluten • Some people have very bad reactions.
Food-Borne Illnesses • An illness caused by consuming foods or beverages that have been contaminated with pathogens. This can be bacteria, viruses, parasitesor chemicals and toxins. • Majority are mild, and cause symptoms for a day or two. • Most severe cases are in elderly and very young.
Most common food borne illnesses • Campylobacter • Bacterial – causes fever, diarrhea. • Caused by undercooked meat or poultry • Salmonella • Most common bacterial –Causes fever, diarrhea, can be life threatening. • Widespread in intestines of birds, reptiles, and mammals.
E Coli • Bacterial , bloody diarrhea, can lead to kidney failure. • From undercooked ground beef, fresh leafy vegetables. Also from swimming in or drinking sewage contaminated waters. • Noroviruses • Group of viruses – causes vomiting, diarrhea, cramping. • Caused by eating or drinking contaminated items.
Food Safety • At the Store • Check expiration dates. • Check cans and packages - avoid dents, cracks, rust, hole, bulges or tears. • Make sure frozen foods are frozen solid. • Open egg cartons to check eggs. • Store refrigerate/freeze foods as soon as you get home from store.
In Refrigerator • Temperature should be below 40 • Freezer below 0. • Pay attention to dates on packages. • Do not store food/beverages in metal cans. • Do not store foods/beverages that have not been cooked or served safely • When in doubt, throw it out!
In the kitchen • Wash hands before preparing food. • Keep juices of raw meat from other foods. • Use different plate, sponges, utensils – when working with raw meats. • Wash fruits and veggies with running water. • Use a meat thermometer. • Thaw foods in refrigerator or microwave – not a room temperature.
On Table- • Do not use same plate for preparing and serving. • Wash utensils. • Do not let cooked foods sit our more than 2 hours. • Do not let dairy products sit out more than 2 hours. • If its cold- keep it cold, If it’s hot keep it hot! • Do not eat raw meat, poultry, eggs, fish, or shell fish.
Leftovers • If foods look or smell bad – throw it out. • Put in sealed containers – 2-4 days. • Milk – 4-5 days after sell by date. • OJ – a week after opening • Raw chicken – 3 days • Hard cheese – 1 – 2 months after opening • Cold cuts – 3 – 5 days • Eggs – 3-5 weeks • Doggie bag – 3 days