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Home Computer Use and Academic Achievement. Jessica Alvarez Education 702.22 Fall 2009 Professor O’Connor-Petruso. Table of Contents. Abstract Introduction -Statement of the Problem -Review of Related Literature -Statement of the Hypothesis Method -Participants (N)

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home computer use and academic achievement

Home Computer Use and Academic Achievement

Jessica Alvarez

Education 702.22

Fall 2009

Professor O’Connor-Petruso

table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Abstract
  • Introduction

-Statement of the Problem

-Review of Related Literature

-Statement of the Hypothesis

  • Method

-Participants (N)

-Instrument (s)

-Experimental Design


  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Implications
  • References
  • Appendix
statement of the problem
Statement of the Problem
  • The use of technology by young children has been linked to improved academic performance. Over the past two decades, computer use at home has gradually risen. This trend has lead to a growing concern for those children without home computer access to perhaps, be at a disadvantage when it comes to enhancing school performance.
  • Jean Piaget-considered children to be constructors of their own development through their actions.
  • Erik Erikson- Stage of Initiative vs. Guilt: Permitted to explore variety of materials and activities.
  • Lev Vygotsky:

Children construct their knowledge through structured tasks.

  • Zone of Proximal Development
  • Scaffolding
review of literature
Review of Literature
  • Years of research has focused on whether computers facilitate learning, especially if students have access to them at home. Many studies have found that home computers are associated with higher test scores in mathematics and reading (Attewell & Battle, 1999; Jackson, von Eye, & Biocca, 2003; Espinosa, Laffey, Whittaker, & Sheng, 2006; Tsikalas, Lee, & Newkirk, 2007; Gil-Flores, 2007).
  • Many parents believe computers should support their children’s learning (educational software, Internet). Yet children spend most of their times playing games that typically are not found in classrooms (Kerawalla & Crook, 2002; Vryzas & Tsitouridou, 2002; Lauman, 2000; Subrahmanyam, Kraut, Greenfield, & Gross, 2000; O’Dwyer, Russell, Bebell, & Tucker-Seeley, 2005; Lai, Chang, & Ye, 2006).
review of literature1
Review of Literature
  • Playing computer games takes away from other activities with greater developmental value (interpersonal skills; developing “electronic friendships”). Can lead to feelings of loneliness, aggression and/or depression (Subrahmanyam et al., 2000).
  • Owning a computer will depend on the child’s socioeconomic status (SES), since the purchase of a computer is a considerable amount that must be figured into the family budget. New inequalities are created on the children of the lower social classes, who find themselves at a disadvantage; “digital divide” (Jackson, Eye, Biocca, Barbatsis, Zhao & Fitzgerald, 2006; Attewell, Suazo-Garcia, & Battle, 2003; Vryzas & Tsitouridou, 2002; McCarrick & Li, 2007; Clotfelter, Ladd & Vigdor, 2008).
review of literature2
Review of Literature
  • Students with access to computers at home demonstrate an increase level of confidence, comfort, and tenacity when using the computers at school. These students have an advantage because they do not need to learn the basic skills to navigate a computer (Lauman, 2000; Tsikalas, Lee, & Newkirk, 2007).
  • Reversal of the traditional parent-child relationship: computer savvy child taking on the role as teacher (Subrahmanyam et al., 2000).

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statement of hypothesis
Statement of Hypothesis

HR1: Allotting fifteen minutes a day, during a six week period, to twenty-two first grade students at P.S. X, to use computers (i.e. visiting educational websites) at school, the library or at a friend’s home (with parental permission), will improve their overall Fountas and Pinnell reading level.

  • Twenty-two first grade students

- twelve boys, ten girls

- age range: 5-6 years

- From P.S. X in Sheepshead Bay,


Class is a racially mixed-

  • Caucasian: 8
  • African Americans: 6
  • Middle Eastern: 6
  • Hispanic: 2
  • Consent form

- explaining the reason for the action research


- inform principal and parents of method in which

students will be studied and assessed

  • Survey

- background information

- computer access

  • Attewell, P., Suazo-Garcia, B., & Battle, J. (2003). Computers and Young Children:
  • Social Benefit or Social Problem? Social Forces,82 (1), 277-296. Retrieved from
  • Jstor database.
  • Attewell, P., & Battle, J. (1999). Home Computers and School Performance. The
  • Information Society, 15, 1-10. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ERIC Document
  • Reproduction Service No. 593524).
  • Becker, H. (2000). Who’s Wired and Who’s Now: Children’s Access to and Use of
  • Computer Technology. The Future of Children, 10 (2), 44-75. Retrieved from Jstor
  • database.
  • Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H., & Vigdor, J. (2009, July 29). Scaling the Digital Divide: Home
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  • from: http://econrsss.anu.edu.au/pdf/seminars/2009juldec/vigdor09.pdf
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  • Macul Journal. Retrieved from
  • https://pantherfile.uwm.edu/edyburn/www/js06evaluatea.pdf
  • Gil-Flores, J. (2007). Computer use and students’ academic achievement. Retrieved
  • from: http://www.formatex.org/micte2009/book/1291-1295.pdf
  • Jackson, L. A., Von Eye, A., Biocca, F. A., Barbatsis, G., Zhao, Y., & Fitzgerald, H. E.
  • (2006). Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-
  • Income Children? American Psychological Association, 42(3), 429-435. Retrieved
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  • 442- 466. Retrieved from Jstor database.
  • Kerawlla, L. & Crook, C. (2002). Children's Computer Use at Home and at School:
  • context and continuity. British Educational Research Journal, 28 (6), 751-771.
  • Retrieved on October 12, 2009 from Teacher Reference Center database.
  • Kupperman, J., & Fisherman, B. (2001). Academic, Social, and Personal Uses of the
  • Internet: Cases of Students from an Urban Latino Classroom. Journal of Research on
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