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Day 31-33 Objectives. Evaluate the causes of the 30 Years War Chronicle the stages of the 30 Years War Analyze the political and religious reasons for countries entering the 30 Years War Evaluate the effects of the 30 Years war on Europe. 30 Years War is a story about a School Bully ↓.
Day 31-33 Objectives • Evaluate the causes of the 30 Years War • Chronicle the stages of the 30 Years War • Analyze the political and religious reasons for countries entering the 30 Years War • Evaluate the effects of the 30 Years war on Europe
30 Years War is a story about a School Bully ↓ • Hapsburg Austria will go on a religious mission (just like who?) • As the bullies try to use force to get their way, what can the little kids do? • What is created afterward? • And possibly a new ______ is created too!! Hapsburg
War Facts • Timeframe ↓ • Motives for fighting in the war will change over time • Early motives… • Late motives… • “Last War of Religion” • Revolves around what country? 1618 1623 1628 1633 1638 1643 1648 |_____________|_____________|_____________|_____________|_____________|_____________| Rel Pol
So many countries will get involved in this war • More on this later
Causes ↑ of the war
Political Division • HRE = 300+ states • Who has the Political (and Religious) power over/inthe HRE? (2) • Nobles? • Holy Roman Emperor? • How is he picked? • Ethnically United?
Religious Division • How many religions? • Who has Religious power over each “state’s” religion? • How is the map evolving religiously
Two Religious events create problems “Peace” of Augsburg (1555) • Princes can choose 2 religions for their lands… • Calvinism is NOT INCLUDED • But by 1618, there are many more Calvinists in the HRE… • Why is it the “Peace” of Augsburg? ○
The Second Event? • 1563, Council of Trent ends • What has gone on and continues to go on for decades after the Council of Trent? • Why can this be a problem?
Disagreement on the future of the HRE What do the German Nobles want? What does The Austrian Empire (Hapsburgs) Want?
Austrian Empire (Hapsburgs) want politically and religiously unified HRE German Nobles Want to stay independent politically and religiously Disagreement on the future of the HRE
The Spark that starts the Thirty Years War!! • Hapsburg Ferdinand II • King x3, Emperor, Archduke • Educated by Jesuits!!! • __________ Catholic • Sounds a lot like someone else we’ve learned
Bohemian nobles (mostly Protestant) accept Ferdinand II as their king • Ferdinand II begins to do what Phillip II did to the Netherlands • Nobles = The Spark that Starts the 30 Years War!!
Defenestration: • The act of throwing a person or thing out of a window
Defenestration of Prague starts the War • May 1618 - Protestant nobles threw 3 Royal Officials (of Ferdinand II) out of a Castle Window in Prague, Bohemia.
What happened to the 3 Royal Officials?
The men's lives are saved! By a pile of manure in the castle’s moat!
After the Defenestration of Prague… • What do the Bohemian nobles do? • What does HRE do?
Two Halves of the 30 Years War • Bohemian Phase (1618-1625) • Danish Phase (1625-1629) • Swedish Phase (1629-1635) • Franco-Swedish Phase (1635-1648)
Phase 1 Bohemian Dutch German Nobles Emperor • 1618-1625 • Nobles back Frederick V of Palatinate Spain
Phase 1 = Habsburg Victory • Ferdinand wins… • Takes land from Bohemian nobles and declares Bohemia Catholic • Spain wins some land too • Now who feels pressure? Emperor Spain
Phase 2 Danish Denmark Dutch Dutch German Nobles Emperor • 1625-1629 • Denmark’s motives to join the German Nobles? Spain
Phase 2 = Habsburg Victory • Denmark drops out • And loses land to the Hapsburgs • March 1629, Edict of Restitution • Now who feels pressure? Emperor
Phase 3 Swedish Sweden Denmark Dutch Dutch German Nobles Emperor France • 1629-1635 • Sweden’s motives? • 2 countries give $$ • France?!?!?!? Spain
France w/Protestants Why? • Avoid Hapsburg suffocation • And create something..
Phase 3 = Protestant Victory • Sweden led by King GustavusAdolphus • KIA 1632 • Edict of Restitution? Emperor
“The Lion of the North”
Revolution? • Old? • New? • Cavalry? Military Revolution 1560-1660
Phase 4 Franco- Swedish Sweden Dutch German Nobles Emperor France France • 1635-1648 • 14 years of murder & mayhem in the HRE!! • France’s motives? Spain
Phase 4 = FRENCH Victory • France goes on a rampage • Pummels Spain • Invades South Germany…huh? • 2 Independence Movements succeed • Peasants Revolts throughout the war • Everyone is exhausted from war
Peace of Westphalia 1648 Two Treaties to create overall peace in Europe
HRE the Winner 1600 • Nobles • HRE still 300+ independent states • Nobles have the power!! • Gov, Coinage, Religion, Foreign Policy • Peace of Augsburg? • Calvinism now allowed for princes Who?
HRE the Loser!! 1700 • 200 years of Disunity!! (so?) • 30 years of fighting in a country will do what to it?? • Millions of Germans (1/4 HRE pop) killed • German Towns and farmland pillaged and destroyed • Hans Grimmelshausen story
Death in the HRE from the 30 Years War
Religion & Politics Split • German States all can choose their religions • Lutheran North • Calvinist Middle • Catholic South • Politiques were right!! • Religion is now a matter of personal choice • What was it before? • Europe progresses at a cost
The Wars of Religion are Complete too!! • Closing Question • Title = Lessons from WoR • What lessons did you learn from the WoR stories? • What lessons do you think are learned in 1650 by Europe? • Is this a dead story?