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HEAT EXCHANGER. By Farhan Ahmad Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore. Criteria for the selection of heat exchanger. Suitable on the grounds of operating pressure and temperature, fluid-material compatibility, handling, extreme thermal conditions

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heat exchanger

HEAT EXCHANGER

By

Farhan Ahmad

Department of Chemical Engineering,

University of Engineering & Technology Lahore

engineering-resource.com

criteria for the selection of heat exchanger
Criteria for the selection of heat exchanger
  • Suitable on the grounds of operating pressure and temperature, fluid-material compatibility, handling, extreme thermal conditions
  • Estimating the cost of those which may be suitable

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general considerations
General considerations
  • Tubes and cylinders can withstand higher pressures than plates
  • If exchangers can be built with a variety of materials, then it is more likely that you can find a metal which will cope with extreme temperatures or corrosive fluids
  • More specialist exchangers have less suppliers, longer delivery times and must be repaired by experts

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double pipe heat exchanger
Double pipe heat exchanger
  • Normal size

Double-pipe heat exchangers are competitive at duties requiring 100-200 ft2

  • Built of carbon steel where possible

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advantages disadvantages of double pipe he
Advantages/disadvantages of double-pipe HE
  • Advantages
    • Easy to obtain counter-current flow
    • Can handle high pressure
    • Modular construction
    • Easy to maintain and repair
    • Many suppliers
  • Disadvantage
    • Become expensive for large duties (above 1MW)

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slide6

Scope of double pipe HE

  • Maximum pressure
    • 300 bar(abs) (4500 psia) on shell side
    • 1400 bar(abs) (21000 psia) on tubeside
  • Temperature range
    • -100 to 600oC (-150 to 1100oF)
    • possibly wider with special materials
  • Fluid limitations
    • Few since can be built of many metals
  • Maximumε = 0.9
  • MinimumΔT = 5 K

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shell and tube heat exchanger
Shell and tube heat exchanger
  • Size per unit 100 - 10000 ft2 (10 - 1000 m2)
  • Easy to build multiple units
  • Made of carbon steel where possible

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advantages disadvantages of s t
Advantages/disadvantages of S&T
  • Advantages
    • Extremely flexible and robust design
    • Easy to maintain and repair
    • Can be designed to be dismantled for cleaning
    • Very many suppliers world-wide
  • Disadvantages
    • Require large plot (footprint) area - often need extra space to remove the bundle
    • Plate may be cheaper for pressure below 16 bar (240 psia) and temps. below 200oC (400oF)

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scope of shell and tube essentially the same as a double pipe
Scope of shell and tube(Essentially the same as a double pipe)
  • Maximum pressure
    • 300 bar(abs) (4500 psia) on shell side
    • 1400 bar(abs) (21000 psia) on tubeside
  • Temperature range
    • -100 to 600oC (-150 to 1100oF)
    • possibly wider with special materials
  • Fluid limitations
    • Few since can be built of many metals
  • Maximumε = 0.9 (less with multipass)
  • MinimumΔT = 5 K

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plate and frame heat exchanger
Plates pressed from stainless steel or higher grade material

titanium

incoloy

hastalloy

Gaskets are the weak point.Made of

nitrile rubber

hypalon

viton

neoprene

Plate and frame heat exchanger

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advantages of plate and frame he
Advantages of plate and frame HE
  • High heat transfer- turbulence on both sides
  • High thermal effectiveness- 0.9 - 0.95 possible
  • Low ΔT- down to 1K
  • Compact - compared with a S&T
  • Cost- low because plates are thin
  • Accessibility - can easily be opened up for inspection and cleaning
  • Flexibility - Extra plates can be added
  • Short retention timewithlow liquid inventory hence good for heat sensitive or expensive liquids
  • Less fouling - low r values often possible

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disadvantages of plate frame he
Disadvantages of plate & frame HE
  • Pressure- maximum value limited by the sealing of the gaskets and the construction of the frame.
  • Temperature - limited by the gasket material.
  • Capacity - limited by the size of the ports
  • Block easily when solids in suspension unless special wide gap plates are used
  • Corrosion - Plates good but the gaskets may not be suitable for organic solvents
  • Leakage - Gaskets always increase the risk
  • Fire resistance- Cannot withstand prolonged fire (usually not considered for refinery duties)

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scope of plate frame he
Scope of plate & frame HE
  • Maximum pressure
    • 25 bar (abs) normal (375 psia)
    • 40 bar (abs) with special designs (600 psia)
  • Temperature range
    • -25 to +1750C normal (-13 to +3500F)
    • -40 t0 +2000C special (-40 to +3900F)
  • Flow rates

up to 3,500 m3/hour can be accommodated in standard units

  • Fluid limitations
    • Mainly limited by gasket
  • Maximum ε = 0.95
  • MinimumΔT = 1 K

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principal applications
Principal Applications
  • Gasketed plate and frame heat exchangers have a large range of applications typically classified in terms of the nature of the streams to be heated/cooled as follows:
  • Liquid-liquid.
  • Condensing duties.
  • Evaporating duties.
  • Gasketed units may be used in
  • refrigeration
  • heat pump plants and
  • extensively used in the processing of food and drinks.

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comparison with shell and tube heat exchangers
Comparison with Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

In quantitative terms, 200 m2 of heat transfer surface requires a plate and frame heat exchanger approximately

  • 3 metres long,
  • 2 metres high and
  • 1 meter wide.

For a tubular heat exchanger achieving the same effect, some 600 m2 of surface would be required in a shell

  • 5 metres long and
  • 1.8 metre in diameter,
  • plus the extra length
  • needed for tube bundle removal.

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welded plates heat exchanger
Welded plates heat exchanger
  • Wide variety of proprietary types each with one or two manufactures
  • Overcomes the gasket problem but then cannot be opened up
  • Pairs of plates can be welded and stacked in conventional frame
  • Conventional plate and frame types with all-welded (using lasers) construction have been developed
  • Many other proprietary types have been developed
  • Tend to be used in niche markets as replacement to shell-and-tube

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principal applications1
Principal Applications
  • As for gasketed plate and frame heat exchanger, but extended to include more aggressive media.
  • Welded plate heat exchangers are used for the evaporation and condensation of refrigerants such as ammonia and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and for different chemicals.

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comparison with shell and tube heat exchanger
Comparison with Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
  • As for gasketed plate and frame units.

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plate fin exchangers
Plate Fin Exchangers
  • Formed by vacuum brazing aluminium plates separated by sheets of finning
  • Noted for small size and weight. Typically, 500 m2/m3 of volume but can be 1800 m2/m3
  • Main use in cryogenic applications (air liquifaction)
  • Also in stainless steel

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scope of plate fin exchanger
Scope of plate-fin exchanger
  • Max. Pressure 90 bar (size dependent)
  • Temperatures -200 to 150oC in Al

Up to 600 with stainless

  • Fluids Limited by material
  • Duties Single and two phase
  • Flow configuration Cross flow, Counter flow
  • Multistream Up to 12 streams (7 normal)
  • Low ΔT Down to 0.1oC
  • Maximum ΔT 50oC typical
  • High ε Up to 0.98

use only with clean fluids

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principal applications2
Principal Applications

The plate-fin heat exchanger is suitable for use over a wide range of temperatures and pressures for

  • gas-gas,
  • gas-liquid and
  • multi-phase duties.

Typically, these involve

  • Chemical and petrochemical plant:
  • Hydrocarbon off-shore applications:
  • Miscellaneous applications:

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comparison with shell and tube heat exchanger1
Comparison with Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
  • A plate-fin heat exchanger with 6 fins/cm provides approximately 1,300 m2 of surface per m3 of volume. This heat exchanger would be approximately 10% of the volume of an equivalent shell and tube heat exchanger with 19 mm tubes.

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spiral heat exchangers
Spiral heat exchangers
  • The classic design of a spiral heat exchanger is simple
  • the basic spiral element is constructed of two metal strips rolled around a central core forming two concentric spiral channels.
  • Normally these channels are alternately welded, ensuring that the hot and cold fluids cannot intermix

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operating limits
Operating Limits
  • Maximum design temperature is 400oC set by the limits of the gasket material.
  • Special designs without gaskets can operate with temperatures up to 850oC.
  • Maximum design pressure is usually 15 bar, with pressures up to 30 bar attainable with special designs.

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applications
Applications
  • It is ideal for use in the food industry as well as in brewing and wine making.
  • Spiral heat exchangers have many applications in the chemical industry including TiCl4cooling, PVC slurry duties, oleum processing and heat recovery from many industrialeffluents.
  • Spiral heat exchangers also provide temperature control of sewage sludge.

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comparison with shell and tube heat exchanger2
Comparison with Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
  • Spiral designs have a number of advantages compared to shell and tube heat exchangers:
  • Optimum flow conditions on both sides of the exchanger.
  • An even velocity distribution, with no dead-spots.
  • An even temperature distribution, with no hot or cold-spots.
  • More thermally efficient with higher heat transfer coefficients.
  • Small hold up times and volumes.
  • Removal of one cover exposes the total surface area of one channel providing easy inspection cleaning and maintenance.

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plate and shell heat exchangers
PLATE AND SHELL HEAT EXCHANGERS
  • The plate and shell heat exchanger combines the merits of shell and tube with plate heat exchangers
  • Current plate and shell heat exchanger models accommodate up to 600 plates in a shell 2.5 m long with a 1 m diameter

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operating limits1
Operating Limits
  • The maximum operating temperature of a plate and shell heat exchanger is 900oC
  • maximum working pressure is 100 bar
  • handle flow rates of 11 litres per second on the shell side.

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principal applications3
Principal Applications
  • The principal applications for plate and shell heat exchangers are:
  • · Heating including district heating.
  • · Cooling including cryogenic applications.
  • · Heat recovery.
  • · Combined exchanger/reactors vessels.
  • · Condensation/evaporation

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comparison with shell and tube heat exchanger3
Comparison with Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
  • For heat exchangers of equivalent area and capacity, plate and shell designs are smaller due to the higher ratio of heat transfer area and specific volume. It is claimed that the plate and shell heat exchanger will occupy only 20 to 30% of the footprint of equivalent capacity shell and tube types.
  • The maximum operating pressure of the plate and shell unit will also be higher.

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stream location rules of thumb
Stream Location(Rules of thumb)
  • more corrosive fluid goes tube-side
    • saves costs when using alloys, cheaper to construct tubes from alloys rather than the shell and tubesheet
  • higher pressure stream goes tube-side
    • small diameter tubes handle stress better than large diameter shells.
  • more severely fouling fluid goes tube-side
    • easier to clean tube-side using high pressure water lance, brushing, chemical cleaning, etc.
  • fluid with lower film coefficient goes shell-side
    • allows use of finned tubing to increase Aoho
  • fluid with low ΔPmax goes shell side

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