Introduction to the OODA Loop and the 8-Step Problem-Solving Process - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to the OODA Loop and the 8-Step Problem-Solving Process

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  1. Introduction to the OODA Loopand the 8-Step Problem-Solving Process

  2. OVERVIEW • Objective of the Problem-Solving Process • OODA Loop Decision Making • 8-Step Problem-Solving Process

  3. Problem-Solving Process • Objective: • - Help Airmen focus their problem-solving skills on big issues that affect our mission, our workcenters, and our people • - Team centered, systematic, common-sense approach aimed at increasing combat capability and making Air Force units more effective and efficient

  4. Problem Solving Process Core of Process Improvement! • Remove Waste and Inefficiencies • Increase: • Productivity • Asset Availability • Improve: • Response Time and Agility • Energy Efficiency • Sustain Safe and Reliable Operations

  5. ? ? SO….How do we do all this? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

  6. OODA Loop

  7. OODA Loop • Originated by Col John Boyd (USAF) • Also known as Decision Cycle • He was dubbed "Forty-Second Boyd" for his standing bet as an instructor pilot that beginning from a position of disadvantage, he could defeat any opposing pilot in air combat maneuvering in less than forty seconds

  8. OODA Loop Four Overlapping and Interacting Processes • Observe • Current Situation • Form Theories • Orient • Set improvement targets • Determine root causes • Decide • Develop Solutions • Act • Implement and Evaluate

  9. 1. Clarify The Problem Observe 2. Break Down The Problem/ Identify Performance Gaps 3. Set Improvement Target Orient 4. Determine Root Causes 5. Develop Countermeasures Decide 6. See Countermeasures Through 7. Confirm Results & Process Act 8.Standardize Successful Processes OODA Loop/Eight-Step Problem-Solving

  10. The “Problem” • There are different types of “PROBLEMS” • Something IS broken, how do we fix it? • IS there opportunity to make something better? If so, how do we improve? • Why did something happen? Find the answer. • This new initiative WILL be implemented, make it happen and deal with any problems that come up. OODA

  11. Step 1 – Clarify & Validate The Problem • Critical Step! • Recognize the correct problem and be sure it is completely understood by all • State the problem by developing a “Problem Statement” • What • Where • When • Significance OODA

  12. Step 1 – Clarify & Validate The Problem • Clarification/Verification Tools • Go and See • “Lay eyes” on situation • First hand observation • Value Stream Mapping • Diagram of steps in process • Flowchart • Voice of the Customer • Surveys • Interviews • It is the customer or end user who determines value OODA

  13. Step 2 – Break Down Problem & I.D. Performance Gap • Don’t just start taking action! • Gather and Review Key Data • Understanding what data is necessary and what it means is critical to problem solving • What is the Performance Gap? • Gap Analysis • Is there a Bottleneck (Constraints)? • Bottleneck Analysis OODA

  14. Step 2 – Break Down Problem & I.D. Relevant Data • Value and Waste Analysis -- Eight Types of Waste: • Defects • Over Production • Waiting • Non-standard Overprocessing • Transportation • Intellect • Motion • Excess Inventory -- Always look for waste in your processes OODA

  15. Step 3 - Set Improvement Targets Where You Want To Be--Desired Outcome • Strategic Targets • Visions of what the organization strives to become • Tactical Targets • Define the performance level necessary to make your strategic vision a reality • Challenging but Achievable OODA

  16. Step 4 – Determine Root Causes • Most vital step in the problem-solving process • Root Cause Characteristics • All too often Air Force leaders find themselves addressing problems that have been “solved” many times before. This is usually due to problem solving efforts being directed at the symptoms of a problem rather than at the root cause of the problem Determining the Root Cause is easier with Data OODA

  17. Step 4 – Determine Root Causes Brainstorming - Quantity, Not Quality - Hitchhike Ideas - Withhold Judgment - Encourage Freewheeling 5 Whys? When you think you understand the cause of the problem ask what caused the cause. i.e. Ask “why” five times. OODA

  18. Step 4 – Determine Root Causes • Control Chart • Pareto Analysis • Cause and Effect Diagram OODA

  19. Step 5 – Develop Countermeasures • Selecting Solutions • Consider quality and practicality and need to gain acceptance by those that must implement it • Two tools to use: Analysis of Alternatives and Action Plans. • Factors to consider when analyzing alternatives: • Effectiveness • Feasibility • Impact Must be Specific, Measurable, and Attainable OODA

  20. Step 5 – Develop Countermeasures ACTION PLAN • Make sure that you have created a clear and detailed plan that everyone can understand. • MOST importantly build consensus with others by involving all of your team appropriately to develop a sense of ownership in the solution and in its success. REMEMBER Communicate! Communicate! Communicate! OODA

  21. Step 6 – See Countermeasures Through Take Action! • Collect Data according to the action plan • Implement contingency plan • Changing conditions • Provide required training OODA

  22. Step 7 – Confirm Results & Process • Ensure the plan is producing the intended results • The project should be monitored for performance relative to: • The baseline developed in steps 1 and 2 • The improvement targets established in step 3 • Where you thought you would be at this stage • Meeting targets by the established deadline • Return to any step necessary OODA

  23. Step 8 – Standardize Successful Processes • Most commonly skipped and under completed of the entire Problem Solving Process • Step 8 can be defined by the answers to Several Questions: • What is needed to standardize the improvements? • Documentation? Tech order changes, Air Force Instruction changes, Official Instruction changes • Were other opportunities or problems identified by the Problem Solving Process? • Restart the OODA Loop OODA

  24. SUMMARY • Objective of the Problem Solving Process • OODA Loop Decision Making • 8-Step Problem-Solving Process

  25. OODA Loop/Eight-Step Problem-Solving