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M. J. Wiley & M. Omair School of Natural Resources and Environment University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Applications of GIS to River Management: Recent developments in the Great Lakes Basin. Why are we here? To learn about research and conservation activities in the Gangan Basin

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slide1

M. J. Wiley & M. Omair

School of Natural Resources and Environment

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Applications of GIS to River Management:

Recent developments in the Great Lakes Basin

slide2

Why are we here?

  • To learn about research and conservation activities in the Gangan Basin
  • To explore possibilities of collaborative research focusing on River Ecosystem Management
slide3

Ganga Watershed St. Lawrence Watershed

Percent

80

60

40

20

0

Percent

80

60

40

20

0

Land cover within 5km of the river

Land cover within 5km of the river

Crop Developed Forest Shrubland Grassland Barren

Crop Developed Forest Shrubland Grassland Barren

slide5

The ecological complexity of large river systems

and the many, inter-related impacts of our own societies on this ecology, make practical management and restoration activities in large rivers particularly difficult

Applications of GIS to River Management:

Recent developments in the Great Lakes Basin

What Is GIS?

Geographic Information System

Spatially explicit relational database system and mapping tools

  • Ecosystem Management Approach: GIS plays a central
  • Classification frameworks for regional Ecological Modeling, Inventory & Assessment
slide6

Ecosystem Management Approach:

  • Wholistic, Collaborative, Stake-holder Sensitive River Planning and Management
slide7

MREMS website(s)

rivers.snre.umich.edu/mrems_www/index.htm

www.gvsu.edu/wri/isc/

slide8

2. GIS-linked Computer modeling provides one tool for regional river-based planning and management: Muskegon River and Grand Traverse examples

  • Regional landscape-scale modeling (raster cover modeling)
  • Ecological Unit Classification and Regional River Mega-modeling
slide9

Simulated Water Table Elevations

Model provides a reasonable prediction of USGS measured heads

Courtesy Drs. B. Pijanowski and D.Hynman, MSU

slide10

Linked Model Can Explore Changes in Water Table Elevations Due to Land Use Change

Influence of Land Use

Land Use Change (40 years)

Changes in recharge rates may affect regional gradients

Decreased heads due to lower recharge rates in urbanizing areas

Courtesy Drs. B. Pijanowski and D.Hynman, MSU

slide11

Simulated Nitrate from Agriculture

10 years

50 years

Concentration (mg/l)

Courtesy Drs. B. Pijanowski and D.Hynman, MSU

michigan rivers inventory vsec units map
Michigan Rivers Inventory VSEC units MAP

2. Ecological Classification frameworks

for regional Ecological Inventory, Modeling and Assessment

280 main stem river segments

and

2000+ tributary units

[mri-vsec v1.0]

slide13

What is Ecological Classification?

Identifying the “fundamental units of nature” (Tansley 1935)

Biological

character

Geomorphic

character

Integrated

multi-factor

[Ecological]

Character

of a River Segment

Hydrologic

character

Chemical

character

slide14

structural and functional units of river ecosystems

  • Functional Ecosystem Units
    • Watersheds
    • { = Landscape (Regional) ecosystems? }

Structural Ecosystem Units

The relatively homogeneous river segments we encounter having distinctive biology, temperature, chemistry, etc.;

Valley Segment Ecological Unit = Biogeocoenose = Ecosystem type

these are local structural expressions of functional watershed units

slide15

Raisin River

mainstem units

slide16

Example applications: regional inventory

Basin-wide

hydrologic assessment

of classification units

useful for regional fisheries resource

And water quality planning

Lake Michigan Tributary Systems

example application river otter kotanchik 1997
Example application: River Otter (Kotanchik 1997)

MDNR Trapping record

PCB threshold

Hg threshold

otter and contaminant data aligned on mri vsec segments
Otter and contaminant data aligned on MRI-VSEC segments

Otters present

high trapping success

PCB contaminated

Hg contaminated

both

logistic modeling of otter distribution
Logistic modeling of Otter distribution

Logistic Regression Results

Prediction success: 83%

Primary predictors:

- Extreme hydrologies

- PCB contamination

- Urban development

- Ag development

+ conifer forests

Using moderls to plan restoration

slide20

Regional River Mega-Modeling links raster, and VSEC unit modeling, and data inventories into an integrated, GIS compatible

Decision Support System

1820 1995 2020 2040

slide21

MREMS

VSEC Modeling framework

Valley Segment Ecological Classification Unit

(Seelbach et al. 1997)

All raster and watershed modeling input & output

is referenced to the VSEC channel units map

and can be displayed in GIS format

Integrating raster and channel based models

In a GIS framework yields a powerful tool

For planning and comunication

slide22

An illustration, from the current Muskegon River study, of our method for linking valley scale ecologicalclassification (VSEC) units to landscape sensitive models. A..Sample sites are used to represent the entire VSEC unit theyoccur in, based on the mapping objective of ecological homogeneity. B.VSEC unit ID # is used to geo-reference andquery the associated catchment, buffers, site databases etc. C. Query results are used as inputs for regional models ofrelevant processes as illustrated here for soluble phosphate load. All segments are processed simultaneously in a matrixmodeling environment. Once modeling is completed predicted results are mapped back into the GIS using the VSECspatial framework. Coupled to changing input data sources on landcoverdistributions, this process can generate bothforecasts and hind-casts of ecological status.

slide23

50

40

30

20

10

0

past

present

future

Soluble P per day at high flow (g/d)

River classification based assessment and modeling techniques retain high spatial resolution across large regional assessments, and are being used by The Nature Conservancy to map the entire Great Lakes Basin for conservation planning; by the USGS Aquatic GAP Program for the Great Lakes Basin; also in a new Three-State Regional Assessment Project; and in Muskegon River Basin Initiative.

slide24

The same modeling approaches can be used to organize and interpret biological resource inventories

and to identify future risks to river biodiversity

slide26

Why are we here?

  • To learn about research and management activities in the Gangan Basin
  • To explore possibilities of collaborative research on River ecosystem management
slide27

Generalized Methodology

Inventory and Data compilation

Landscape analysis leading to regional modeling

Ecological Classification

Modeling of reference condition

Status Assessment

Risk Assessment

slide28

An illustration, from the current Muskegon River study, of our method for linking valley scale ecologicalclassification (VSEC) units to landscape sensitive models. A..Sample sites are used to represent the entire VSEC unit theyoccur in, based on the mapping objective of ecological homogeneity. B.VSEC unit ID # is used to geo-reference andquery the associated catchment, buffers, site databases etc. C. Query results are used as inputs for regional models ofrelevant processes as illustrated here for soluble phosphate load. All segments are processed simultaneously in a matrixmodeling environment. Once modeling is completed predicted results are mapped back into the GIS using the VSECspatial framework. Coupled to changing input data sources on landcoverdistributions, this process can generate bothforecasts and hind-casts of ecological status.

simulate human impact scenarios

Land Transformation Modeling Project

Simulate Human Impact Scenarios
  • Does urbanization alter hydraulic head?
    • What does the future look like?
slide31

Au Sable River

mainstem units

slide32

Ecological Channel Units

[MRI_VSEC v1.1]

Muskegon River

Lake Michigan Drainage

~2900 square miles

  • I.Upper River
  • 42 vsec units
  • characteristic fishes
  • pike
  • rock bass
  • Excellent salmonid tribs
  • Clam
  • Hersey
  • Bigelow
  • Cedar
  • II. Mid River
  • 46 vsec units
  • characteristic fishes
  • walleye (Smb, burbot)
  • brown trout seasonal

III. Lower River; 19 vsec units: pretty much everything