MALAYAN UNION. MALAYAN UNION (KESATUAN MALAYA). Soon after the Japanese occupation, the British came back to Malaya and introduced temporary military government or BMA (British Military Administration). On 1 st April 1946, the British replaced BMA with the Malayan Union.
MALAYAN UNION (KESATUAN MALAYA) • Soon after the Japanese occupation, the British came back to Malaya and introduced temporary military government or BMA (British Military Administration). • On 1st April 1946, the British replaced BMA with the Malayan Union.
Why British Introduced Malayan Union? • To combine all scattered administration into one. • The unification was to assist administration and saved expenditure. • To enforce defence and boost economic recovery and progress.
Why British Introduced Malayan Union? • To prepare for the locals for own government. • British owed to the Chinese and the Indians whom helped them in fighting with the Japanese.
FEATURES OF THE MALAYAN UNION • Except for Singapore, all Malayan States were united under one central government i.e. Malayan Union. • A British Governor would be appointed in due course with the help of Government Council and Judiciary Council.
FEATURES OF THE MALAYAN UNION • Rulers’ sovereignty would be abolished - they would only have the authority in Islamic affairs and customs. • State council would be under the central government.
FEATURES OF THE MALAYAN UNION • All races would be given equal rights – Jus Soli Principle - Malayan citizenship was obtained if (a) the foreigner was 18 and above and had resided in Malaya for 10 out 15 years before 15 February 1942. (b) a person who born in Malaya after the forming of the Malayan Union.
FEATURES OF THE MALAYAN UNION • Equal rights for all citizens regardless of race or origin. • This includes the entry into government services and the right to vote in the general election.
Opposition against the Malayan Union • Harold Mac Michael succeeded in getting the Rulers’ signatures through intimidation.
Opposition against the Malayan Union Dato’ Onn Jaafar, a Malay nationalist, led the Malays to oppose: • Mac Michael’s intimidation to the Malay Rulers • Loss of Rulers’ powers • Effects on the position of the Malays • Fear that the non-Malays would outnumber the Malays
Opposition against the Malayan Union • March 1946, the Malayan Malay Congress chaired by Dato’ Onn met in Kuala Lumpur, attended by 41 organisations, opposed the formation of the Malayan Union, held demonstrations at major towns, established the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) to protect Malay interests
Opposition against the Malayan Union • A group of former British officers like Frank Swettenham also opposed
Opposition against the Malayan Union • Non-Malays formed the Malayan Democratic Union (MDU), formation of the Malayan Union undemocratic, Singapore not included.
Opposition against the Malayan Union • The British government ignored all protests and Malayan Union was proclaimed on 1 April 1946. • Edward Gent became the Governor of the Malayan Union. • Malay Rulers boycotted the installation ceremony.
THE FAILURE OF MALAYAN UNION • The Malayan Union constitution forced the Malays to think in new direction. • The Malays felt their position threatened because of the Jus Soli principle.
THE FAILURE OF MALAYAN UNION • The Malayan Union would eradicate the power and sovereignty of the Malays Rulers. • Sir Harold Mac Michael threatened and forced the Malay Rulers to accept the Malayan Union.
THE FAILURE OF MALAYAN UNION • The introduction of Malayan Union was too early, immediately after the Japanese occupation. • The locals were still occupied with the Japanese slogan “Asia for Asians”. • The Malays were not ready to accept radical changes that would affect their position.
THE FAILURE OF MALAYAN UNION • The British government refused to accept the Malays proposal on Malayan Union. • Sir Harold Mac Michael threats on Malay Rulers challenged the Malay sovereign. • the previous British Administrators in Malaya supported the Malay up rise.
THE LOCAL UPRISE AGAINST THE MALAYAN UNION • Dato’ Onn lead the Malays against the Malayan Union and instilled national spirit among them. • He established “Pergerakan Melayu Semenanjung” (Peninsular Malay Movement) in January 1946 to defend the rights of the Malays. • He chaired the Pan-Malayan Malay Congress meeting on 29th and 30th March 1946 in Kuala Lumpur.
THE LOCAL UPRISE AGAINST THE MALAYAN UNION • Through this congress the Malays was advised to boycott the Malayan Union and unite to stage demonstrations on 1st April 1946. • The Malay rulers were advised not to attend the appointment ceremony of Edward Gent as the first Governor of the Malayan Union.
THE LOCAL UPRISE AGAINST THE MALAYAN UNION • United Malay National Organisation (UMNO) was formed by Dato’ Onn on 11th May 1946. • Umno slogan at that time was “Hidup Melayu” and “Hidup Bangsa Melayu” (Long Live Malays and Long Live the Malay Race) then changed to “Merdeka” (Independent). • The strong fight against the Malayan Union by the Malays caused the Malayan Union to be abolished.