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Chapter 12. Intermolecular Forces:. Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes. If you are doing this lecture “online” then print the lecture notes available as a word document, go through this ppt lecture, and do all the example and practice assignments for discussion time.

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Chapter 12

Intermolecular Forces:

Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes

If you are doing this lecture “online” then print the lecture notes available as a word document, go through this ppt lecture, and do all the example and practice assignments for discussion time.

why do gases differ from liquids solids
Why do gases differ from liquids & solids?

Gases are tiny particles far apart with no attraction for each other (ideally) and they are moving rapidly in random directions

Gases obey a set of laws: Ideal Gas Laws

But liquids & solids don't have a set of "laws" because....

Liquids: - condensed from gases

- not compressible therefore not much space

between molecules

-moving randomly but more slowly, are attracted

to each other!

Solids: - ordered fixed in place particles

- close together

- strong forces of attraction!

interparticle forces
Interparticle Forces

Interparticle forces of attraction between "particles" that affect physical state & physical behavior

Note: particles can be ions, atoms or molecules

True chemical bonding forces are intra-particle forces: within a chemical substance

They are atom to atom or ion to ion, not molecule to molecule: ionic bonding, metallic bonding, covalent bonding, and (new to us) network covalent bonding

Interparticle forces are between particles, not within them

Special group of interparticle forces between molecules and atoms:

- called intermolecular forces

- affect behavior of covalent compounds

Next slide is table from your packet of handouts



High MP, brittle solid

Low MP, soft when solid

Range of MPs, malleable


Network Covalent Atom-Atom like cov bond 500+ Diamond

Very high MP, very hard solid

network covalent bonding
Network Covalent Bonding

Make special note of the network covalent solids that I added to Table 12.2:

- covalent bonds are extended throughout the crystal solid

- diamond and SiC, also SiO2

Diamond is fcc with 4 C's in "holes" in unit cell, which we see later in chapter

Graphite has unique structure (see diagram)





**“True” Intermolecular Forces in pure substances

ion dipole attraction
Ion-Dipole Attraction:

Interparticle forces involved in dissolving ionic solids in water or other polar solvents:

Ion-dipole attraction has to overcome ion-ion attraction in a solid’s crystal lattice

This is why some compounds are soluble and some are not

Called Hydration of an ion: typically endothermic - takes energy to pull ions apart

Some energy is gained back as Heat of Hydration - polar water molecules orient themselves and surround the individual ions

More detail coming soon in Chapter 13

the major intermolecular im forces
The Major InterMolecular (IM) Forces

The three major IM Forces are very weak to moderate forces of attraction between molecules (or atoms)

- London (dispersion) forces (LDF)

- Dipole-dipole attractions

- Special case of enhanced dipole attraction called Hydrogen-bonding

- Dipole-induced dipole attraction, between different types of molecules or atoms

london dispersion forces ldf
London Dispersion Forces (LDF)

"Instantaneous dipole" causes neighboring electron clouds to also move to one side, inducing a dipole in them

Leads to a small force of attraction between slight positive and slight negative ends of two different particles – these attractions are called London dispersion forces

Strength of LDF depends on: (1) size of electron cloud in atom and/or (2) number of atoms in a molecule

Polarizability increases down a group

Polarizability decreases left to right across a period

Look at the elemental halogens: fluorine and chlorine are gases; bromine is liquid and iodine is solid because of size of e- cloud around each molecule


Dispersion forces among nonpolar molecules.

Figure 12.14

instantaneous dipoles

separated Cl2 molecules

An instantaneous dipole in one Cl2 molecule will induce a dipole in a nearby Cl2 molecule. The partial charges attract the molecules together. This process takes place with the particles throughout the container.


Figure 12.15

Molar mass and boiling point.

The strength of LDF increases with the number of electrons, which correlates with molar mass. Therefore, LDF increases down a group in the Periodic Table, which can be verified by the increase in boiling points.


Molecular shape and boiling point.

Figure 12.16

fewer points for dispersion forces to act

more points for dispersion forces to act

Spherical molecular shapes make less contact with each other than do cyllindrical shapes, so they have a lower boiling point.

(It’s just Pentane.)


I have corrected the organic names – compare to your textbook, which is using old naming rules.



Polar molecules and dipole-dipole forces.

Figure 12.11


In a solid or a liquid, polar molecules are close enough for the attraction to hold. Orientation is more orderly in a solid because the average KE of the particles is lower.

dipole dipole attraction
Dipole-dipole Attraction

Dipoles involve polar molecules which are attracted to each other because of the slight positive and slight negative "poles" to the molecules

Compare molecules of F2, HF, HCl, HBr, HI

Boiling points: F2<HCl<HBr<HI<HF

data for im forces
Data for IM Forces


Tot # e-s 18 10 18 36 54

MM 38 20 36.5 81 128

DEN 0 1.8 1.0 0.8 0.5

Dip Mom 0 1.4 1.1 0.8 0.4

% Disp 100 Low 81.4 94.5 99.5

% Dipole 0 High 18.6 5.5 0.5

BP, K 85 291 188 206 238

DHvap 6.86 High 16 18 20

enhanced dipole dipole or hydrogen bonding
Enhanced Dipole-Dipole or Hydrogen-Bonding?

Dipole forces are decreasing down the hydrohalogen group because DEN is decreasing

WHY is HF so very different in boiling point?

HF represents a special case of dipole-dipole attraction called Hydrogen-bonding

Occurs when H is bonded to a highly EN atom that is also very small: H to F, O or N

Size of EN atom is important also, allows H to get very close, as seen with radius in pm below:

N-70 O-73 F-72 Cl-100 (no H-bond)



Which of the following substances exhibits H bonding? For those that do, draw two molecules of the substance with the H bonds between them.





Find molecules in which H is bonded to N, O or F. Draw H bonds in the format -B: H-A-.



Drawing Hydrogen Bonds Between Molecules

of a Substance


(a) C2H6 has no H bonding sites.


The N-H is also attracted to the N-H.


Hydrogen bonding and boiling point.

Figure 12.13

Boiling points of the binary covalent hydrides of Groups 14 – 17 plotted agains Period digit. Shows that H2O, HF and NH3 do not follow the downward trend, as shown by the dashed line for group 16.

dipole induced dipole between two different compounds particles
Dipole-Induced Dipole: between two different compounds’ particles

Dipole-induced dipole forces account for limited solubility of oxygen in water

Ability to do this = function of polarizability of molecule

Compare H2 to I2: bigger molecule polarizes, soluble in water, which is demonstrated by the much greater solubility of I2 in water



For each pair of substances, identify the dominant interparticle forces affecting the physical properties of each substance, and then select the substance with the higher boiling point.

(d) Hexane (CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3)

or 2,2-dimethylbutane


Predicting the Type and Relative Strength of

Intermolecular Forces

(a) MgCl2 or PCl3

(b) CH3NH2 or CH3F

(c) CH3OH or CH3CH2OH

  • Bonding forces are stronger than nonbonding(intermolecular) forces.
  • Hydrogen bonding is a strong type of dipole-dipole force.
  • Dispersion forces are decisive when the difference is molar mass or molecular shape.


Predicting the Type and Relative Strength of

Intermolecular Forces



(a) Mg2+ and Cl- are held together by ionic bonds while PCl3 is covalently bonded and the molecules are held together by dipole-dipole interactions. Ionic bonds are stronger than dipole interactions and so MgCl2 has the higher boiling point.

(b) CH3NH2 and CH3F are both covalent compounds and have bonds which are polar. The dipole in CH3NH2 can H-bond while CH3F is just dipole-dipole. Therefore CH3NH2 has the stronger interactions and the higher boiling point.

(c) Both CH3OH and CH3CH2OH can H bond but CH3CH2OH has more CH for more London dispersion force interaction. Therefore CH3CH2OH has the higher boiling point.

(d) Hexane and 2,2-dimethylbutane are both nonpolar with only London dispersion forces to hold the molecules together. Hexane has the larger surface area, thereby the greater dispersion forces and the higher boiling point.

practice with intermolecular forces explain the forces behind this data
Practice with Intermolecular Forces: explain the forces behind this data:

1. Butane (CH3CH2CH2CH3) melts at -138oC and boils at 0.5oC, while acetone (CH3C=OCH3) melts at -95oc and boils at +56oC, yet both weigh 58 g/mol. Draw Lewis structures and explain the differences in MPs and BPs.

2. Guess BP order for CCl4, N2, Cl2, ClNO (chlorine-nitrogen-oxygen).


H bonded to

N, O, or F

Figure 12.17 modified

Summary diagram for analyzing the interparticle forces in a sample.

Metal atoms only


(atoms, molecules, ions)


ions present

ions not present

ions only


(Section 9.2)


molecules or atoms




polar molecules only



ion + polar molecule


polar + nonpolar










See handouts

Also chapter problems: 2, 29, 31, 33, 37, 39, 43, 45

4th ed. #119: What forces are overcome when the following events occur: (a) NaCl dissolves in water, (b) krypton boils, (c) water boils, (d) CO2 sublimes?


 Start at the top with the first question, “Is it metallic?”. When you can answer yes, you are done. If the answer is no, keep going down the list. The “it” refers to whatever substance you are working with.

Question If yes, this force is present* MP & BP Examples (MP, BP)

 Is it metallic? (ONLY metal present) Metallic bonding High Iron (1555, 3000)

Is it ionic? (cation & anion present) Ionic bonding High NaCl(804, not defined)

Is it network covalent compound? Network covalent bonding High Diamond (3550, not def), SiC, SiO2

Is the substance molecular? (covalent bonds present)

In the molecule, is H attached by a covalent Hydrogen bonding Medium Water (0.100)

bond to F, O or N?

Does the molecule have a dipole moment? Dipole-dipole attraction Low HCl (-114, -85)

Is it a molecule with no dipole moment? Only London Forces Very low Hydrogen (-257, -253)

Iodine (114, 183)

Does the substance consist of atoms with no Only London Forces Extremely low Neon (-249, -246)

covalent bonds between them?

*Remember – London forces are present in all liquids and solids.

Practice with these, supposing all to be in liquid or solid phase: methane, ethanol, sucrose (look up structure), NaOH, SiC, F2O, Cl2O, octane, radon, uranium, hydrobromic acid.

properties of liquids interparticle forces

Why would a metal object with higher density than water float on water?

Why can we fill a glass of water above its rim?

Surface tension is related to strength of attractive forces in liquid: the stronger the attractive forces the greater the surface tension

Surface tension is the energy required to increase surface area by a unit amount; units are J/m2


The molecular basis of surface tension.

Figure 12.18

hydrogen bonding

occurs across the surface

and below the surface

the net vector

for attractive

forces is downward

Molecules in the interior of a liquid experience IM forces in all directions. Molecules at the surface experience a net attraction downward, causing the liquid to minimize the number of molecules at the surface, ergo surface tension.

hydrogen bonding

occurs in three



Table 12.3

Surface Tension and Forces Between Particles

Surface Tension

(J/m2) at 200C



Major Force(s)

diethyl ether


dipole-dipole; dispersion





H bonding




H bonding; dispersion




H bonding




metallic bonding


stronger cohesive forces

adhesive forces

Shape of water or mercury meniscus in glass.

Figure 12.19




See note in box below or look in textbook.

properties of liquids
Properties of Liquids

Capillary action: rising of a liquid through a narrow space against the force of gravity

Viscosity: resistance to flow, units in Newton-seconds/m2


Table 12.4 Viscosity of Water at Several Temperatures

viscosity - resistance to flow

Viscosity (N*s/m2)*










*The units of viscosity are Newton-seconds per square meter.

why water is special
Why water is special:

Water molecules are 80% H-bonded at normal conditions

Molecules are so close together that you cannot tell which H's belong to which O in each molecule

This is important to life on earth (& possibly elsewhere)

Ice floats on liquid water because the solid (ice) is less dense than the liquid (good for fishies)

Ice forms a crystal structure in tetrahedral arrangement

Hydrogen-bonding also accounts for other physical properties:

Lower weight alcohols are very soluble in water because of the -OH functional group

Great solvent properties because water is so polar

Very high specific heat as noted back in Chapter 6

High surface tension


The H-bonding ability of the water molecule.

Figure 12.20

hydrogen bond donor

hydrogen bond acceptor

Because it has two O-H bonds and two lone pairs, one water molecule can engage in as many as four hydrogen-bonding attractions to surrounding water molecules, which are arranged tetrahedrally.


The hexagonal structure of ice.

Figure 12.21

A. The geometric arrangement of the hydrogen-bonding in water leads to open, hexagonally shaped crystal structure of ice. Thus, when water freezes, the volume increases.

B. The delicate six-pointed beauty of snowflakes reflects the hexagonal crystal structure of ice.

solids crystal structures

SOLIDS: fixed particles that cannot move with velocity, but do vibrate and rotate in position, so they do have KE

Generally have long-range order - crystals have well-defined regular shapes, or if short-range order they are amorphous - no regular shape, like asphalt, wax, glass

Crystal structure includes the four types of solids

ionic (all cation-anion units)

metallic (Cu, Zn, U, etc.)

molecular/atomic (ice, I2, etc.)

network covalent (diamond, SiC, SiO2)

general properties of the four types of crystalline solids
General Properties of the Four Types of Crystalline Solids

1. Ionic (KNO3, MgO): high MP/BP; some water-solb, brittle, conduct only when molten or aqueous

2. Molecular (C10H8, I2): low MP/BP; more solb in nonpolar; nonconductors

3. Network Covalent (Cdiamond, SiC, SiO2): very high MP/BP; insolb, brittle, non- or semi-conductor

4. Metallic (Cu, Fe, U): wide range of MPs; insolb, malleable, ductile, elec conductor


The striking beauty of crystalline solids.

Figure 12.22





Figure 12.22 in current 2nd edition has wulfanite, barite, calcite, quartz as amethyst, and beryl (emerald)

crystal structures
Crystal Structures

Crystals have a crystal lattice arrangement of which smallest pieces are unit cell in 3-D, containing > one formula unit

Seven basic types: cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, hexagonal, rhombohedral, triclinic

See packet of handouts and Dry Lab VI(?) in Lab Manual for “Crystal Structures and Characteristics”

Simplest are the cubic, of which there are three types

Simple cubic (sc): metals and ionic cmpds

Body-centered cubic (bcc): metals

Face-centered cubic (fcc): metals and ionic cmpds


lattice point

unit cell

unit cell

portion of a 2-D lattice

portion of a 3-D lattice

The crystal lattice and the unit cell.

Figure 12.23

A. The lattice is an array of points that defines the positions of the particles in a crystal structure. It is shown here as points connected by lines. One unit cell is highlighted.

A checkerboard is a two-dimensional analogy for a lattice.


1/8 atom at 8 corners

The three cubic unit cells.

Figure 12.24 (1 of 3)

Simple Cubic

Atoms touch along edge of cube

Atoms/unit cell = 1/8 * 8 = 1

Cell length = 2r

coordination number = 6

See notes box below slide.


1/8 atom at 8 corners

1 atom at center

coordination number = 8

The three cubic unit cells.

Figure 12.24 (2 of 3)

Body-centered Cubic

Atoms touch along main diagonal.

Atoms/unit cell = (1/8*8) + 1 = 2

Cell length = 4r/(3)1/2

See notes box below slide.


1/8 atom at 8 corners

1/2 atom at 6 faces

coordination number = 12

The three cubic unit cells.

Figure 12.24 (3 of 3)

Face-centered Cubic

Atoms touch along face diagonal.

Atoms/unit cell = (1/8*8)+(1/2*6) = 4

Cell length = 4r/(2)1/2

See notes box below slide.

cell length and cell volume
Cell length and cell volume

See figure 12.28 for derivation of cell length based on which cubic structure makes up the unit cell. For metals cell length is: sc length = 2r; bcc length = 4r/(3)1/2; fcc length = 4r/(2)1/2

Cell length determination is different for ionic compounds, which are simple cubic or face-centered cubic: sc length = 2(r+R)/(3)1/2; fcc length = 2(r+R)

Volume of any cube = (length)3

crystal structures practice
Crystal Structures Practice

See handouts and practice problems

Also chapter problems: 61, 64, 67, 73, 75

4th ed. #98: Polonium is a rare radioactive metal that is the only element with a crystal structure based on the simple cubic unit cell. If its density is 9.142 g/cm3, calculate an atomic radius for a polonium atom.

crystal structures practice1
Crystal Structures Practice

4th ed. #101: Tantalum, with D = 16.634 g/cm3, has a bcc structure with an edge length of 3.3058 Angstroms. Use its molar mass and this data to prove Avogadro’s number.




Phase Changes










vapor pressure
Vapor Pressure

Evaporation/vaporization: small fraction of molecules have high enough velocity to escape force of attraction at surface

RATE OF EVAPORATION: will increase with increasing T, since fraction of molecules with escape vel will increase

In a closed system, a dynamic equilibrium will be reached:

Rate of evaporation = rate of condensation

Vapor pressure: vapor molecules exert a partial pressure called vapor pressure


Liquid-gas equilibrium.

Figure 12.4

A. In a closed flask at const T, with air removed, Pi = 0. As molecules escape surface to become vapor, P increases. B. At equilibrium, # of molecules escaping liquid = # of molecules condensing, P is constant. C. Plot of P vs. time shows P becomes constant.


The effect of temperature on the distribution of molecular speed in a liquid.

Figure 12.5

With T1 lower than T2, most probable molecular speed, u1, is less than u2. Fraction of molecules with “escape velocity” is greater at the higher temperature. At higher T, equilibrium is reached with more molecules in the vapor phase, therefore at a higher P.

vapor pressure practice
Vapor Pressure Practice

If 1.00 L of water is placed in 2.30x104 L closed room, will all the water evaporate? Given D = 0.997 g/mL, Vapor Pressure = 23.8 torr at 25.0oC.

Water will evap till room is at 23.8 torr partial pressure of water vapor.

See how many moles at that point:

n = PV/RT = 29.4 mol

How many moles in 1.0 L beaker? About 55 moles - won't all evaporate

vapor pressure vs temperature
Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature

Boiling point: occurs when you see bubbles of gas forming in the liquid and coming to surface

Any pure liquid remains at constant T while boiling, since this is a change of state


BP is the Temperature at which VP = barometric P

Why does water boil at 100oC in Fairfield and at 95oC in Denver?


Figures 12.6 and 12.7

Figure 12.7

A linear plot of vapor pressure- temperature relationship.

Vapor pressure as a function of temperature and intermolecular forces.

The Clausius-Clapeyron equation comes from this graph: y = mx + b

vapor pressure curves
Vapor pressure curves:

Initial "phase diagrams" incorporated into P/T diagrams that will include solid phase later

Why can NH3 be condensed from gas to liquid at Room T by compression, but N2 can't?

relative humidity
Relative Humidity


Relative humidity as reported by weather forecasters:

%water evap=actual partial P/equil vapor P * 100

If actual is 12.8 and VP for given T is 21.1, relative humidity is 61%

vp and d h vap
VP and DHvap

DHvap is related to VP and T thru the Clausius-Clapeyron equation

ln P = (-DHvap/RT) + C (where R = 8.314 J/mol-K, T in K)

If plotted on a graph, the slope is:

=(ln p2 – ln p1)/(1/T2 – 1/T1)= -DHvap/R

Rearranges to Clausius-Clapeyron Equation (next slide)


The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation


Alternately, if you don’t want to use the negative sign:

ln (P2/P1) = DHvap/R(1/T1-1/T2)

clausius clapeyron equation examples
Clausius-Clapeyron equation examples

Look at Sample Problem 12.2 in text.

My Example: hexane has DHvap = 30.1 kJ/mol and at 25.0oC, VP = 148 torr. What will VP be at 50.0oC?

ln (P2/148) = (-30.1x103J/8.314 J/mol-K)(1/323.15 – 1/298.15)

ln (P2/148) = 0.9394 (take antilog of both sides)

P2/148 = e0.9394 = 2.55

P2 = 379 torr


Chapter problems: 17 & 18

17: A liquid has DHovap of 35.5 kJ/mol and a BP of 122oC at 1.00 atm. What is its VP at 113oC?

18: What is the DHovap of a liquid that has a VP of 641 torr at 85.2oC and a BP of 95.6oC at 1.00 atm?


test tube with ice

iodine solid

iodine vapor

iodine solid

Iodine subliming.

Figure 12.8 4th ed.,

not in principles

simple phase diagrams
Simple Phase Diagrams

Are P vs. T diagrams showing three phases for pure elements or compounds, incorporates the VP curve

Critical Point is where liquid and gas cannot be distinguished from each other

Triple Point is where solid, liquid and gas phases meet and all three are present

Example: For water the Triple Point is 0.01oC and 4.58 torr

For CO2 Triple Point is at -56.7oC and 5.1 atm




Phase diagrams for CO2 and H2O.

Figure 12.8

Each region depicts the T & P under which the phase is stable. Lines between regions show conditions at which two phases exist in equilibrium. The Critical Point shows conditions beyond which liquid and gas cannot be distinguished from each other. At the triple point, three phases exist is equilibrium. CO2 phase diagram is typical with forward sloping solid-liquid line; solid is more dense than liquid. H2O phase diagram is sloping backward; solid is less dense than liquid.

phase diagrams
Phase Diagrams

You must draw and label phase diagrams based on data given to you and determine the physical state of a substance from its placement on a phase diagram.

Work on problems 20 & 22