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Evolution towards Smart Grids:  Research and Development in Europe (Evolução rumo às redes inteligentes: pesquisa e desenvolvimento na Europa). P.F. Ribeiro , PhD, IEEE Fellow. Introductory Words.

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slide1

Evolution towards Smart Grids: Research and Development in Europe

(Evolução rumo às redes inteligentes: pesquisa e desenvolvimento na Europa)

P.F. Ribeiro, PhD, IEEE Fellow

slide2

Introductory Words

The design and operation of life sustainable infrastructures such as electric energy grids can no longer ignore the increasing demands of more and sophisticated users, the scarcity of energy resources and the environmental concerns.

Within this context, the concept of smart grids has surfaced and some significant technological developments are taking place.

However, and due to the great complexity of such systems, which involve a number of interwoven technological systems and societal aspects, engineers and designers concentrate on the methodological side of the engineering design and pay less attention to the ontological, epistemological and ethical aspects.

introductory words
Introductory Words

The electric power grid is a crucial part of society infrastructure and needs constant attention for maintaining its performance and reliability.

A power systems grid is a widespread, interconnected system and is as strong as its weakest link and/or its control operation strategies during emergency conditions.

Security and energy sustainability have become major priorities to both customers and electric companies.

Deployment of sustainable / renewable energy sources are crucial to a healthy relationship of society and the environment.

An aggressive search of sustainable sources and a sensitive, but firm implementation of solutions is much needed.

Solutions need to taken into account a sensitive balance of societal needs, environment al concerns and the economics of energy projects.

slide7

Example

  • Arithmetic
  • Spatial
  • Kinematic
  • Physical

Parts

Parts

slide8

Logical / Physical

  • Communications
  • Economics

Example

Sub-System

Sub-System

slide9

Concepts

  • Specs
  • Theory
  • Quantitative Analysis
  • Practical Considerations
  • Design Instrumentalities
  • Arithmetic
  • Spatial
  • Kinematic
  • Physical
  • Biotic
  • Sensitive
  • Logical
  • Historical
  • Communications
  • Social
  • Economics
  • Aesthetics
  • Juridical

Example

Product / System

Product / System

slide10

Example

Aspects

Aspects

slide11

Society

Society

engineering design philosophical questions
Engineering Design Philosophical Questions

Scientific

Essence

Technological

Nature

Market

Political

Juridical

Ethical

tu e electrical engineering department

Conn. World

Care & Cure

Sm. & Sust.S.

OED

ECO

EM

CS

EPE

MSM

ES

SPS

EES

TU/e Electrical Engineering Department

Electrical Engineering

Themes

Society

Politics

Multidisciplinary

Platforms

Business

Technologies

.

Multidisciplinary

Research

Bach. stud.

R&D

COBRA

CWTe

PCTC

CSP

slide14

TU/e Electrical Engineering Department

Electrical Energy Systems (EES)

Electromechanics and Power Electronics (EPE)

Design Methodology for Electronic Systems (ES)

Mixed Signal Micro Electronics (MsM)

Control Systems (CS)

Signal Processing Systems (SPS)

Electro-Optical Communications (ECO)

Opto-Electronic Devices (OED)

Electromagnetics (EM)

electrical energy systems group ees
Electrical Energy Systems Group (EES)
  • Mission:
    • Generation of knowledge to support the supply and efficient use of electrical energy
  • Call for a sustainable society:
    • Intelligent networks and their components are needed to integrate distributed and sustainable generation
    • Disturbance free design (EMC) is needed to enable an all electric sustainable society
    • Pulsed Power Technology is needed for the efficient recycling of material flows
electrical energy systems group ees16

Conn. World

Care & Cure

Smart & Sust. Soc.

Electrical Energy Systems Group (EES)

People involved in education and research

12 professors

6 technical staff

23 PhDs and post-docs

4 guests

More than 25 master students (EE and SET)

facilities in the corona building
Facilities in the “Corona” building

Power quality and RES laboratory

  • High-voltage laboratory
  • Pulsed power
  • EMC
  • Intelligent test methods
  • Further outside facilities with companies

EMC laboratory

PAGE 17

the evolution towards smart grids
The evolution towards smart grids

Market

Factory

Central

Generation

Microturbine

Wind

Substation

Commercial

Dispatchable

DSM

Battery

Pumped Storage

Fuel Cell

Flowbattery

Flywheel

Residence

Hyper car

Photovoltaic

Microturbine

Power & Communications Link

smart grids onderzoek uitdagingen en resultaten
Smart grids onderzoek: uitdagingen en resultaten

Wat zijn relevante thema’s voor Universitair onderzoek

Wat denken we daarmee te bereiken

Wat zijn onze partners, wie is onze klant

Waar staan we over 10 jaar

slide22

Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks

Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures

Handling Power Quality Issues

System

behavior

Responce

contributiom

contributiom

behavior

behavior

time /

of P and Q

of P and Q

Intelligent Design

Intelligent Design

through

through

Short circuit

Short circuit

Selectivity

-

-

Supply

Supply

Ride

Ride

Model of

decentral

Short circuit

detection

Protection

generation

Tuning

Research on smart grids

design control and protection of distribution networks overview
Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks (overview)

Finished thesis work of Frans Provoost on “Intelligent Distribution Network Design”

Finished thesis work of Roald de Graaff on “Flexible distribution systems through the application of multi back-to-back converters”

Finished thesis work of Edward Coster on “Distribution Grid Operation Including Distributed Generation”

Ongoing research of Else Veldman on “Flexible and Efficient Electricity Distribution Grids”

Ongoing research of Panagiotis Karaliolios on “Short-circuit behaviour of distribution networks with high penetration level of DG”

Ongoing research of Petr Kadurek on “Intelligent and Decentralized Management of Networks and Data”

design control and protection of distribution networks some results

=

out

in

=

Intelligent

Node

Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks (some results)

2

1

2

1

V1

V2

Concept of an Intelligent Node(Research of Provoost theoretical, De Graaff practical)

V1set

V2set

design control and protection of distribution networks some results25
Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks (some results)

Voltage profile at the MV busbar during and after a 100ms s/c event in HV grid (research of Coster –CHPs and Karaliolios –DG in general)

design control and protection of distribution networks some results26
Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks (some results)

Daily load profiles for different combinations of residential load elements (Research of Veldman)

design control and protection of distribution networks some results27
Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks (some results)

LV and MV voltages measured at smart substation. Impact of voltage control with smart transformer(Research of Kadurek)

handling power quality issues overview
Handling Power Quality Issues(overview)

Finished thesis work of Sjef Cobben on “Power Quality: Implications at the Point of Connection”

Finished thesis work of Cai Rong on “Flicker Interaction Studies and Flickermeter Improvement”

Almost finished thesis work of Peter Heskes on “Minimizing the Impact of Resonances in Low Voltage Grids by Power Electronics based Distributed Generators”

Ongoing research of Sharmistha Bhattacharyya on “Power Quality Requirements and Responsibilities at a Customer's Point of Connection in the Network”

Ongoing research of VladimirĆuk on “Power Quality Modelling Techniques”

handling power quality issues some results

Unbalance

Voltage

level

Dips

Flicker

Harmonic

distortion

1

A

0.66

B

0.33

C

0

D

-0.33

E

F

-1

Handling Power Quality Issues(some results)

PQ classification system developed by Cobben

-0.66

handling power quality issues some results30
Handling Power Quality Issues(some results)

PQ responsibilities sharing among different parties in the network (Research of Bhattacharyya)

handling power quality issues some results31
Handling Power Quality Issues(some results)

Harmonic current interaction – AC/DC converter and industrial lamps (Project of Ćuk)

transition towards new electrical infrastructures overview
Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (overview)

Finished thesis work of Phuong Nguyen on “Multi-Agent System based Active Distribution Networks”

Almost finished thesis work of Jasper Frunt on “Analysis of Balancing Requirements in Future Sustainable and Reliable Power Systems”

Ongoing research of Ioannis Lampropoulos on “Evaluation and assessment of local balancing resources”

Ongoing research of Khalil el Bakari on “Operation and Design of Smart Grids with Virtual Power Plants”

Ongoing research of Greet Vanalme a.o. on “Transition Roadmap for the Energy Infrastructure in the Netherlands”

Starting research of Frits Wattjes on “Concept of an Integrated Smart Grid where both System/Network operators and market parties create value”

Starting research of Ballard Asare-Bediako on “Intelligent Energy Management System at Household Level”

Starting research of Helder Ferreira on “Reliability analyses on distribution networks with dispersed generation”

slide33

Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results)

The use of agents for power routing and power matching (research of Nguyen)

slide34

Interconnections

220-380 kV

Power Plants

110-150 kV

TSO

G

G

Load

10-50 kV

DSO

Wind farms

(Offshore)

CHP

(Industry)

Load

230-400 V

Wind

farms

(bio-)CHP

(Industry)

Other renewable

Controllable loads

Storage devices

Load

Windmills

(solo)

micro-CHP

(Households)

Solar

panels

VPP

Operators

Intelligent

devices

Intelligent

devices

Intelligent

devices

Intelligent

devices

Smart

meters

Intelligent

devices

Intelligent

devices

Intelligent devices

Operator: Virtual Power Plants (VPP)

Operator: Large Scale Virtual Power Plant (LS-VPP)

Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results)

VPPs can be operated by commercial market players as well as system operators

Aggregation of DERs under the VPP concept (Research of El Bakari)

slide35

Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results)

Projected load profiles for 2.45m flexible devices (of each type which means 30 % of the households having these) for 5 days

Covered prediction errors between 1h-ahead and 15min-ahead forecasts of 2.5 GW wind production in assuming 30 % of active households for DSM (research of Lampropoulos)

transition towards new electrical infrastructures some results
Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results)

Functional overview Smart Home Installation (research of Asare-Bediako)

slide37

Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results)

Interaction Gas and Electricity Network Development (TREIN project)

transition towards new electrical infrastructures some results38
Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results)

TSO

PX market

AS market

BRPm

BRP1

Prosumers

Prosumers

Communication and interfaces in ahead energy markets (research Frunt and Lampropoulos)

Bilateral contracts & capacity bids

Request to reserve capacity

Cleared volume and price for energy and AS per PTU

Bilateralcontracts

Prices for energy and AS

Bid curves for energy and AS

transition towards new electrical infrastructures some results39
Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results)

Interaction between Market and System

(research of Frunt)

PAGE 39

lab setup at ecn

LAB-SETUP at ECN

Mini Testgrid

laboratory equipment

Laboratory equipment

Triphase development system

Rapid prototyping of power electronics applications

Controlled by pc (Matlab-Simulink)

Mini test grid 20 kVA @ 50 Hz

Motor / synchronous generator

RLC-loads

DER simulator

lab equipment converters

Lab equipment (converters)

Mini testgrid

20kVA

40-60 Hz

Triphase Development System

www.triphase.com

slide44

EERA SmartGrids

SP1 - Network Operation

www.eera-set.eu

overview approach in eera sg sp1

Overview - Approach in EERA SG-SP1

Potential problems in the future grid

Onset of grid instability

Background of frequency stability

Variable generation and the swing equation

General characteristics of potential control measures

What does literature tell us?

Research field - EERA SG SP1 "Network Operation"

Objective: Need for a universal "Primary" Smart Grid Control structure

Main Problems Addressed

 Conventional and Future Grid Control

Central Grid Control

State-of-the-art in Smart Grid control

Local Grid Control

onset of grid instability

General order of instability events:

    • First Voltage instability
      • Indicates failure in power delivery
    • Then frequency instability (if things go really wrong)
      • Indicates significant power imbalance
  • A stable grid starts with a stable frequency

Onset of grid instability

slide49

Objective: Need for a universal "Primary" Smart Grid Control structure

  • A universal and relatively simple "primary" control structure for Smart Grids is to be developed to a mature concept
    • Basic grid operation is guaranteed by giving the primary control structure precedence over all other algorithms 
    • ICT-layers for purposes like energy trading and grid asset management may be added depending on local needs
slide50

Main Problems Addressed

  • Developing and choosing effective new control structures
  • Grid integration of new control structures
    • Normal operation
    • Emergency situations and micro grids
    • Flexible control centre cycles
slide51

Central Grid ControlSubdivision of control time scales -- conventional control algorithms & techniques

Control time scale

Associated technique

Communication signals

Control algorithm

Aim

Synchronous machine response

Short term imbalance energy buffer

✱ Voltage phase angle

1 ms – 30 sec

Synchronising torque

✱ Rotating inertia

System balancing by grid operator

✱ Local controller

✱ Droop control

30 sec – 15 min

Primary control

✱ Frequency-Power

✱Voltage-Reactive power

✱ system frequency

Instant balancing

✱ Inter area power flow

Inter area balancing by grid operator

25 sec – 15 min

Secondary control

✱ Load-Frequency Control

✱ Inter-area controller

✱ droop curve shifting

✱ Electronic message one day ahead

✱ Generated power

✱ Day-ahead generation schedule

10 min – 1 hour

Scheduling / Energy trading

Tertiary control

✱ 15 min set points from Day-ahead market

slide52

State-of-the-art in Smart Grid control

  • Supply and Demand Matching algorithms
  • Electrical energy storage
  • Virtual Synchronous Machine algorithms
  • Micro grids
  • (…)
  • One algorithm and associated techniques alone cannot stabilise the future Smart Grid
    • each algorithm and associated technique has its own operational time frame
    • The electrical system however operates in real-time across all conceivable time frames
slide53

Local Grid Control Subdivision of control time scales -- Smart Grid control algorithms & techniques

Control time scale

Associated technique

Communication signals

Control algorithm

Aim

Synchronous machine response

Short term imbalance energy buffer

✱ Voltage phase angle

1 ms – 30 sec

Synchronising torque

✱ Virtual inertia

System balancing by grid operator

✱ Virtual inertia

✱ Droop control

Instant power balancing

✱ system frequency

✱ SOC  of local stores

30 sec – 15 min

Primary control

✱ Frequency-Power

✱Voltage-Reactive power

Secondary control

✱ Load-SOC Control

Short term storage balancing

5 min – 30 min

✱SDM control

( SDM = Supply and Demand Matching)

✱ SOC of local stores

(SOC=State of Charge)

✱ Electronic message one day ahead

✱ Generated power

✱ Day-ahead generation schedule

10 min – 1 hour

Scheduling / Energy trading

Tertiary control

✱ 15 min set points from Day-ahead market

local grid operation

Normal operation

Local grid operation

Severe Disturbance

Main Grid

Complementary actions of:

Conventional control 

 Inertia and P-f droop control

Instant power balancing

Virtual inertia and P-f droop

Short term storage balancing

SDM control

(SDM = Supply and Demand Matching)

Short term storage balancing

5-30 minutes

✱Restoration of local balance

Local Grid

Instant Power balancing

0-10 minutes

Stabilisation of:

✱Frequency

✱ Voltage

16-11-09

synergetic benefits of instant power balancing short term storage balancing

Synergetic benefits of     Instant Power Balancing &    Short Term Storage Balancing

Instant Power Balancing with Virtual Inertia:

Stabilises local grid up to 10 minutes under unbalanced conditions

=> Low bandwidth communications system sufficient

 Short Term Storage balancing with Supply and Demand Matching:

Restores local system balance continuously

=> Limited energy store sufficient

Together:

Builds business case for future grids

statements for discussion

Statements (for discussion)

The reliability of the Future Grid may be:

low in a classical top-down control structure

enforced by using loosely connected micro-grids

weakened by a too heavy ICT footprint

For a Future Grid we need algorithms that:

stabilise interconnected local-grids

offer a local stabilising equivalent to:

Primary control

Secondary control

Reduce the ICT footprint

Key to the success of Future Grids is:

 A gradual transition from the conventional top-down control structure to peer-to-peer local-grid control structure

barriers
Barriers

Cost

Unreliability

T&D Incompatibility

Load Flow Control

Voltage Control

Protection

Power Quality Issues

Politics

Regulations

slide59

The Big Picture – Smart Living

Distributed (Renewable) Energy Sources

Distributed (Renewable) Energy Sources

Intelligent / Sustainable

Cities

Buildings, Houses, Transportation,

Electric Grid

Intelligent / Sustainable

Cities

Buildings, Houses, Transportation,

Electric Grid

Regionally Optimized Portfolio /Mix of Renewable Energy

Regionally Optimized Portfolio /Mix of Renewable Energy

Integration with Macro and Micro Grids

Integration with Macro and Micro Grids

Normative Practices

Economics, Market, Business

Political Will

For Caring and Just Communities

Political Will

For Caring and Just Communities

Smart Living

Attractively / Aesthetically / Ecologically Friend / Stable

Environment

concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks

Distributed generation, micro grids, super-grid, and renewable energy sources offer many benefits (including increasing the security of supply and reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, etc.).

Although these benefits are clearly identified, DG and Renewables, etc. are not always economically viable. Their viability depends heavily on energy prices, stimulation measures and the consideration of all societal aspects and not only the technical side.

Technical difficulties and customer responses should not be trivialized - though they offer an opportunity for engineering creativity.

A vigorous political initiative with regard to stimulation measures for DG and Renewables is necessary to encourage serious investments by the market.

Smart-Sustainable-Micro-Grids can provide the required integration and higher reliability, security, flexibility and more sustainable electric energy for smarter living.