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Euroscepticism & r ight- w ing p opulism in Western and Eastern Europe - Poland and The Netherlands. A comparative approach. Aleksandra Moroska Willy Brandt Center for German and European Studies, Wroclaw University, Poland Conference organized by

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Euroscepticism & right-wing populism in Western and Eastern Europe - Poland and The Netherlands. A comparative approach

Aleksandra Moroska

Willy Brandt Center for German and European Studies, Wroclaw University, Poland

Conference organized by

Political Science Research Centre, Zagreb, Croatia

list pim fortuyn lpf league of polish families lpr questions to be answerd
List Pim Fortuyn (LPF) & League of Polish Families (LPR)Questions to be answerd:

1. What form of right-wing populism does each party represent?

2. How do these parties address the European issue in their politicalprograms?

3. How do they use their Eurosceptical position in their strategy?

4. To what extent does the electoral success of these parties depend on their Eurosceptic positions?

table of contents
Table of contents

1. Theoretical background

2. Determinants of the rise of right -wing populist parties & rise of

Euroscepticism: external and internal

3. Characteristics of right –wing populist parties: common features and

differences

4. Euroscepticism

5. Euroscepticism as a mobilizing issue for LPF & LPR

6. Conclusions

1 theoretical background
1.Theoretical Background
  • F. Decker’s typology of

right-wing populism

  • P. Taggart/ A. Szczerbiak’s definition of Euroscepticism
theoretical background
Theoretical Background
  • J. Rydgren’s Opportunity Structure Modeladapted to examine Euroscepticism as a mobilizing issue

Short term

opportunity structure

2 determinants of the rise of right wing populist parties rise of euroscepticism
Poland

1989 - change of the international situation of the country

EU integration – political target of highest importance – „Return to Europe”

Adaptation to EU standards – connected with grate costs for the country

2. Determinants of the rise of right -wing populist parties & rise of Euroscepticism
  • External – international (events at the European level)
  • Internal – national (crisis situations: political, economic, cultural)

External

The Netherlands

  • Deepening & enlargement of the EU – changed position of The Netherlands in the EU
  • Early 1990s - net contributor to the EU
  • Eastern enlargement – treat to the Dutch national interests (labour market, unemployment, corruption)
internal national
The Netherlands

Characteristics:

Post-industrial country

Consensual democracy

Corporative economy

Crisis situations:

Political: convergence of political elites – „The Purple Coalition”

Lack of democratization of the political system

Economic: quality reduction in the public sector

Cultural: Dutch culture & tradition threatened by multicultural society

Poland

Characteristics:

Transformation of the country

Democratization of the political system

Shift to market economy

Crisis situations:

Political: lack of political stabilization, lack of representation by the governing parties

Economic: growth of poverty and unemployment: disparity between winners & losers

Cultural: individualization of society in the Western manner – a threat to traditional, catilic values

Internal – national
slide9
4. Euroscepticism

Strength: LPF & LPR – the hard form of Euroscepticism

Quality of Euroscepticism:

euroscepticism1
LPF

Enlargment and Constitutional Treaty provided a opportunity for a intensification and radicalisation of anti-EU rethoric.

Position on European integration from the inside - Whether and how to pursue integration on several fronts

LPR

With a change in the internal and external circumstances LPR has changed its strategy over time to a soft Eurosceptic position.

Position on European integration from the outside - Integration issue – a bundle „take it or leave it”

European Membership of Poland had forced LPR to take this inside position – Europeanisation of LPR

Euroscepticism
6 conclusions
6. Conclusions
  • Right-wing populist ideological elements (nationalism, conservatism and populism) determine their broad, hard eurosceptic underlying position towards European integration.
  • They use different strategies, which are caused by deferent external and internal circumstances
  • LPF represent a cultural and moderate form of right-wing populism. Its Euroscepticism relies on political and cultural elements – focus on the political aspects.
6 conclusions1
6. Conclusions
  • LPR represent cultural, extreem form of right-wing populism. Its Euroscepticism derives from all three aspects: cultural, political and economic - focus on the cultural aspects.
  • The primary difference is found, in the field of micro-supply, to be the strategy of the parties. LPF is not using the European issue at all, while for LPR Europe is the main campaigning issue.
  • The parties differ regarding the saliency Euroscepticism has as a mobilizing issue for them: LPF – very low salience, almost none, LPR very salient, one of the main mobilizing issues.
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