the role of car use for subjective well being n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Role of Car Use for Subjective Well-Being PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Role of Car Use for Subjective Well-Being

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

The Role of Car Use for Subjective Well-Being - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 65 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Role of Car Use for Subjective Well-Being. Cecilia Bergstad Jakobsson (co-PI) Amelie Gamble Tommy Gärling (PI) Olle Hagman Merrit Polk University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden Margareta Friman Lars E. Olsson Karlstad University, Sweden Dick Ettema

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Role of Car Use for Subjective Well-Being' - rooney-burton


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the role of car use for subjective well being
The Role of Car Use for Subjective Well-Being

Cecilia Bergstad Jakobsson (co-PI)

Amelie Gamble

Tommy Gärling (PI)

Olle Hagman

Merrit Polk

University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden

Margareta Friman

Lars E. Olsson

Karlstad University, Sweden

Dick Ettema

Utrecht University, The Netherlands

subjective well being swb definitions
Subjective Well-Being (SWB) Definitions

SWB has a cognitive and an affective component.

The cognitive component is a globaljudgement of (current or past) satisfaction with one´s life. It is heavily influenced by and slightly influences domain satisfaction, e.g. judgments of satisfaction with one´s health, work, marriage and leisure.

The affectíve component (sometimes referred to as affective SWB) is identified with (current or past) mood which vary from positive to negative.

subjective well being swb measurement
Subjective Well-Being (SWB) Measurement

SWB is either measured by a single-item scale:

”Taken all things together, how would you say your life is today? Would you say you are very happy, rather happy, or not happy at all?”

(World Values Survey, Eurobarometer)

Or by a multi-item scale

“In most ways my life is close to my ideal; The conditions of my life are excellent; I am satisfied with my life; So far I have achieved the important things I want in life; If I could live my life over again, I would change almost nothing.” (Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS; Diener et al.)

Mood is measured by self-report rating scales (but physiological methods may also be used):

”Rate how positive-negative you feel at the moment/have felt previous week.” ”Indicate how frequently you have felt positive/negative previous week.”

subjective well being swb determinants
Subjective Well-Being (SWB) Determinants
  • Personality (50%)

Higher for extravert than introvert people

Higher for emotional stable than emotional instable people

  • Socio-demographic variables (10%)

Women more variable than men

U-shaped relation to age (minimum at 40)

Increases with education

Increases with employment

Negatively accelerated function of income

Increases after marriage, decreases after divorce or death of spouse

  • Intentional activities (40%)

Increases with goal pursuit

Increases with positive affect associated with activities

Decreases with daily hassles (negative stress)

daily travel and swb 1

SWB

activity performance

travel time

cost

reliability

safety

security

satisfaction

with travel

mood

Daily Travel and SWB (1)
daily travel and swb 2

psychological motives

satisfaction

with travel

car use

socio-demographic

variables

car access

Daily Travel and SWB (2)
survey in september november 2007
Survey in September-November 2007
  • Sample
  • 1,330 (44.3 %) randomly sampled Swedish residents:
  • 196 (19.6 %) from urbanareas (>200,000)
  • 536 (53.6 %) from semi-rural areas (20,000 - 200,000)
  • 543 (54.3 %) from rural areas (<20,000)

53.7% women/mean age 46.3 years

Singles without children 12.7% Single 19.8%

Singles with children 5.1% Cohabiting 77.4%

Cohabiting without children 34.3% Without children 47.0%

Cohabuting with children 43.1% With children 48.2%

35.2% had a university degree

56.3% was full-time employed/69.8% mean employment degree

1,134 (85.2%) access to private cars

survey in september november 20071
Survey in September-November 2007
  • Questionnaire
  • Psychological motives for car use
  • Performance of out-of-home activities previous week
  • Affect associated with performance of the activities
  • Travel mode to the activities
  • Mood (previous week)
  • SWB (life in general)
  • Satisfaction with travel
  • Socio-demographic variables
survey in september november 20072
Survey in September-November 2007
  • Measures
  • Scales of instrumental-independence motives (11 items 0-6, M = 5.0/SD = 0.9,  = .87)
  • Scales of affective-symbolic motives (14 items 0-6, M = 1.8/SD = 1.2,  = .91) (0-6)
  • Number of weekly car trips (M = 11.2/SD = 8.7)
  • Percent car use as driver to activities (M = 69.4/SD = 33.0)
  • Percent car use as passenger to activities (M = 13.0/SD = 21.0)
  • SWB (SWLS, 6 items 0-6, M = 4.0/SD=1.3,  = .92)
  • Weekly mood (SCAS, 2 items -3-3, M=4.0/SD = 1.3,  > .75)
  • Satisfaction with activities (SAS, mean 4.5 items -3-3, M = 4.3/SD = 0.9,  > .77)
  • Satisfaction with travel (STS, 5 items 0-6, M = 3.7/SD = 1.3,  = .77)
slide10

Study 1Affective-symbolic and instrumental-independence motives for daily car use mediating effects of socio-demographic variables on car use

Research Question

To what degree do instrumental-indepedence and affective-symbolic motives mediate relationships between socio-demographic variables and daily car use?

study 1 measures of psychological motives
Study 1: Measures of psychological motives

Affective-symbolic

To what extent do you agree to that …

I express myself through my car; Driving is sporty and adventurous; Driving is my hobby; The car gives me power in traffic; The car provides privacy; I enjoy driving a nice, good-looking car; I can distinguish myself from others;I get a kick out of driving; I am a bit in love with my car; Driving is enjoyable; The car gives me prestige; Driving is relaxing; I love driving fast; I love the drone of my engine and muffler.

Instrumental-indepenedence

To what extent do you agree to that …

The car brings me wherever I want; Driving saves a lot of time; Driving makes my life more easy; I can visit family and friends; Feelings of freedom the car gives me; Driving is comfortable; I am free to stop everywhere; I am not dependent on others; I get out; I can chose my own route; The car enables recreational trips and holidays.

11

study 1 results 1

Number of weekly car trips

R2adj = .09  .11

Study 1: Results (1)

Socio-Demographic Variables n beta  beta

Instrumental-independence motive 1126 0.10

Affective-symbolic motive 1127 0.08

Sex (man 1, woman -1)11290.09 0.08* Age (40 – 54 years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) 1134 -0.02 0.02

Age (55 + years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) 1134 -0.10 -0.08

Cohabitant (1 vs. single -1) marital status 1073 -0.01 0.01

Children (1 vs. no children -1) 1073 0.14 0.15

University (1 vs. lower -1) education 1134 -0.04 -0.02

Employment (%) 1120 0.07 0.07

Income (1-6) 1054 -0.04 -0.05 Urban (-1) vs semi-rural (1) residential area 1092 0.07 0.08

Urban (-1) vs rural (1) residential area 10920.09 0.08*

Number of cars1119 0.12 0.10

*Partial mediation by instrumental-independence motive

study 1 results 2

% car trips as driver

R2adj = .14  .18

Study 1: Results (2)

Socio-Demographic Variables n beta  beta

Instrumental-independence motive 1126 0.17

Affective-symbolic motive 1127 0.04

Sex (man 1, woman -1) 11290.18 0.19* Age (40 – 54 years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) 1134 0.01 0.04

Age (55 + years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) 1134 0.05 0.07

Cohabitant (1 vs. single -1) marital status 1073-0.13 -0.11

Children (1 vs. no children -1)10730.09 0.10

University (1 vs. lower -1) education1134-0.10 -0.07

Employment (%) 1120 0.05 0.05

Income (1-6)1054-0.08 -0.09Urban (-1) vs semi-rural (1) residential area10920.11 0.10*

Urban (-1) vs rural (1) residential area10920.11 0.09*

Number of cars11190.21 0.19

*Partial mediation by instrumental-independence motive

study 1 results 3

% car trips as passenger

R2adj = .07 .08

Study 1: Results (3)

Socio-Demographic Variables n beta  beta

Instrumental-independence motive 11260.07

Affective-symbolic motive 1127 0.04

Sex (man 1, woman -1)1129 -0.22 -0.22 Age (40 – 54 years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) 1134 0.02 0.04

Age (55 + years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) 1134 0.050.07

Cohabitant (1 vs. single -1) marital status10730.10 0.09

Children (1 vs. no children -1) 1073 -0.09 - 0.09

University (1 vs. lower -1) education 1134 -0.04 -0.05

Employment (%) 1120 -0.09 -0.09

Income (1-6)1054 -0.09 -0.09 Urban (-1) vs semi-rural (1) residential area 1092 0.03 0.03

Urban (-1) vs rural (1) residential area10920.07 0.07

Number of cars 1119 -0.04 -0.02

study 2 impact of routine out of home activities on swb
Study 2Impact of Routine Out-of-Home Activities on SWB

Research Question

Does affect associated with performance of out-of-home routine activities influence SWB? Is this effect mediated by mood?

study 2 results 1

Mood

M=4.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .02

Study 2: Results (1)

Socio-Demographic Variables n beta

Sex (man 1 vs. woman -1) 1325 0.00

Age (40 – 54 year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1)1322 0.00

Age (55 + year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) 1322 0.06

Cohabitant (1 vs. single -1) marital status 1316 0.06

Children (1 vs. no children -1) 1318 0.01

University (1 vs. lower -1) education 1319 0.01

Income (1-6) 1211 0.10

Employment (%)1313 0.06

Urban (1 vs rural -1) residential area 1275 -0.04

Semi-rural (1 vs rural -1) residential area 1275 0.02

study 2 results 2
Study 2: Results (2)

Socio-Demographic Variables n beta beta

Sex (man 1 vs. woman -1) 1325 0.00 0.04

Age (40 – 54 year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1)13220.000.08

Age (55 + year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1)1322 0.06 0.07

Cohabitant (1 vs. single -1) marital status1316 0.06 0.15

Children (1 vs. no children -1) 1318 0.01 0.02

University (1 vs. lower -1) education 1319 0.01 0.04

Income (1-6)12110.100.13

Employment (%)13130.060.10

Urban (1 vs rural -1) residential area 1275 -0.04 0.01

Semi-rural (1 vs rural -1) residential area 1275 0.02 0.04

SWB

M=1.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .07

study 2 results 3

SWB

M=4.0/SD=1.3

R2adj = .43

Socio-demographic variables (R2adj = .07)

n M SD

1320 1.0 1.3

990 1.1 1.2

1108 0.8 1.1

787 1.2 1.2

639 1.9 1.1

402 1.6 1.3

848 1.8 1.1

558 1.9 1.1

289 1.6 1.2

243 1.2 1.3

beta

0.32

0.19

0.06

0.04

0.07

0.12

-0.04

0.04

0.07

beta

0.16

0.16

0.03

0.04

0.04

0.07

-0.01

0.05

0.05

beta

0.25

-0.02*

0.03*

-0.01

0.00*

0.01*

-0.02*

0.01

0.01*

0.01*

Study 2: Results (3)

Mood

Work/school

Non-durables purchase

Other purchases

Sports/exercise/outings

Hobby/religious/courses

Visiting relatives/friends

Restaurants/entertainment

Picking up/leaving children

Children’s leisure activities

Mood

R2adj = .30

*Full mediation

study 3 swb related to satisfaction with daily travel
Study 3SWB related to satisfaction with daily travel

Research Question

Does satisfaction with daily travel have direct and indirect (via satisfaction with activity performance) positive effects on SWB? Does car use play a more important role for this than other travel modes?

study 3 measure of satisfaction with travel
Study 3: Measure of satisfaction with travel

To what extent do you agree to that …

I amcompletely satisfied with my daily travel; My travel facilitates my daily life; When I think of my daily travel the positive aspects outweighs the negative; I do not want to change anything regarding my daily travel;My daily travel makes me feel good

20

study 3 results 1

Socio-Demographic variables

#cars in household

Weekly car use (%)

Sex (man 1 vs. woman -1)

Age (40 – 54 year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1)

Age (55 + year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1)

Cohabitant (yes 1, no -1)

Children (yes 1, no -1)

University (1 vs. lower -1) education

Employment (%)

Income (1-6)

Urban (1 vs. rural -1) residential area

Semi-rural (1 vs. rural -1) residential area

n beta

1313 -0.02

12900.08

1325 0.05

1322 -0.05

13220.14

1316 -0.03

1318 -0.05

1319 0.01

1313 0.04

1211 0.03

1275 -0.03

1275 0.01

Satisfaction with travel

M=3.7/SD=1.3

R2adj = .02

Study 3: Results (1)
study 3 results 2

Mood

M=1.0/SD=1.3

R2adj = .07  .31

Study 3: Results (2)

Satisfaction with travel

Satisfaction with activities

#cars in household

Weekly car use (%)

Sex (man 1 vs. woman -1)

Age (40 – 54 years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1)

Age (55 + years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1)

Cohabitant (yes 1, no -1)

Children (yes 1, no -1,)

University (1 vs. lower -1) education

Employment (%)

Income (1-6)

Urban (1 vs. rural -1) residential area

Semi-rural (1 vs. rural -1) residential area

n beta  beta

1317 0.21 0.08*

1298 0.52

1313 0.03 0.01

1290 -0.03 0.01

1325 -0.01 -0.05

1322 0.01 -0.01

1322 0.03 0.04

1316 0.09 0.06 1318 0.02 0.01 1319 0.01 -0.01

13130.050.06

1211 0.090.05

1275 -0.04 -0.03

1275 0.02 0.02

*Partial mediation

study 3 results 3

SWB

M=4.0/SD=1.3

R2adj = .13 .21

Study 3: Results (3)

Satisfaction with travel

Satisfaction with activities

#cars in household

Weekly car use (%)

Sex (man 1 vs. woman -1)

Age (40 – 54 years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1)

Age (55 + year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1)

Cohabitant (yes 1, no -1)

Children (yes 1, no -1,)

University (1 vs. lower -1) education

Employment (%)

Income (1-6)

Urban (1 vs. rural -1) residential area

Semi-rural (1 vs. rural -1) residential area

n beta beta

1317 0.23 0.15*

1298 0.30

1313 0.06 0.05

1290 0.00 0.03

1325 0.03 0.01

1322 -0.08 -0.08

1322 0.04 0.04

1316 0.14 0.15 1318 0.02 0.01 1319 0.05 0.04

13130.090.10

1211 0.11 0.09

1275 0.02 0.02

1275 -0.05 -0.04

*Partial mediation

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Affect associated with out-of-home routine activities accounted for 30% of the variance in mood and because of full mediation, 12% of the variance in SWB. Conversely, the socio-demographic variables account for 7% of the variance in SWB and 2% of the variance in Mood. This is close to what has been found in previous research. A new finding is that routine activities have such a large impact.
  • Satisfaction with daily travel increases Mood and SWB, partially because (= partial mediation) it facilitates activity participation, partly because of direct effects.
  • In the investigated sample car use plays some role for satisfaction with daily travel. Why not a larger role?
  • In the investigated sample instrumental-independence motives are more important than affective-symbolic motives for car use. Why?
  • Only a small proportion of the variance in car use was accounted for, more by the socio-demographic variables than the psychological motives which only (partially) mediated some of the relationship between sex and car use. Why?
slide25

Overview of travel and SWB

Ettema, D., Gärling, T., Olsson, L. E., & Friman, M. (2009). Out-of-home activities, daily travel, and subjective well-being. Manuscript submitted for publication,

  • Svensk slutrapport
  • Jakobsson Bergstad, C., Gamble, A., Hagman, O., Polk, M., Gärling, T., & Olsson, L. E. (2009). Bilens roll för människors subjektiva välbefinnande [The role of the car for people’s subjective wellbeing] (CFK rapport No. 2). Göteborg, Sweden: Center for consumer science, School of Business, Economics, and Law, University of Gothenburg.
  • Study 1
  • Jakobsson Bergstad, C., Gamble, A., Hagman, O., Polk, M., Gärling, T., & Olsson, L. E. (2009). Affective-symbolic and instrumental-independence psychological motives mediating effects of socio-demographic variables on daily car use (Göteborg Psychological Reports No. 39:3). Göteborg, Sweden: Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
  • Study 2
  • Jakobsson Bergstad, C., Gamble, A., Hagman, O., Polk, M., Gärling, T., Ettema, D., Friman, M., & Olsson, L. E. (2009). Impacts of routine out-of-home activities on subjective well-being (Göteborg Psychological Reports No. 39:4). Göteborg, Sweden: Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
  • Study 3
  • Jakobsson Bergstad, C., Gamble, A., Hagman, O., Polk, M., Gärling, T., Ettema, D., Friman, M., & Olsson, L. E. (2009). Subjective well-being related to satisfaction with daily travel (Göteborg Psychological Reports No. 39:5). Göteborg, Sweden: Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.