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Chapter Thirteen – Drug Analysis (Part I). FRSC 8104 Criminalistics II Professor Bensley. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Objectives. Understand the basic concepts of psychological and physical dependence. Name and classify commonly abused drugs.

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Chapter Thirteen – Drug Analysis (Part I)


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    1. Chapter Thirteen – Drug Analysis (Part I) FRSC 8104 Criminalistics II Professor Bensley

    2. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Objectives • Understand the basic concepts of psychological and physical dependence. • Name and classify commonly abused drugs. • Define the evolution of the Controlled Substance Act in the United States and explain the differences between federal and state and local drug laws. • List and define the schedules of the Controlled Substance Act. • Describe the “five p’s” in the chemical analysis of drugs. • Describe, explain, and perform the laboratory tests normally used to perform a routine drug identification analysis.

    3. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Objectives • Explain the testing procedures used for the forensic identification of marijuana. • Explain the testing procedures used for the forensic identification of pill, tablets, capsules. • Explain the testing procedures used for the forensic identification on powders, solids, and residues. • Develop an understanding of the design and manufacturing process of clandestine laboratories.

    4. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline • Introduction • Definition of drugs and medicines In 2010, there were 4.9 million drug-related emergency department (ED) visits; about one half (46.8 percent, or 2.3 million visits) were attributed to drug misuse or abuse with a nearly equal percentage (47.4 percent) attributed to adverse drug reactions http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k12/DAWN096/SR096EDHighlights2010.htm

    5. In 2010, ED visits resulting from the misuse or abuse of pharmaceuticals occurred at a rate of 434.9 visits per 100,000 population compared with a rate of 378.5 visits per 100,000 population for illicit drugs http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k12/DAWN096/SR096EDHighlights2010.htm # ED VisitsVisits per 100,000 • Illicit Drugs 1,171,000 378.5 • Heroin 224,706 72.6 • Cocaine 488,101 157.8 • Marijuana 461,028 149.0 • Pharmaceuticals 1,345,645 434.9 • Anti-anxiety + Insomnia 472,769 152.8 • Benzodiazepines 408,021 131.9 • Antidepressants 105,229 34.0 • Pain Relievers 659,969 213.3

    6. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline More Statistics Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL (March 2004). "Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000". JAMA291 (10): 1238–45. DOI:10.1001/jama.291.10.1238 Actual Causes of Preventable Deaths in United States (2000)

    7. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline http://www.drugwarfacts.org/cms/Economics#Budget

    8. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline Drug War Clock - 2014

    9. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline Source: United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1998.

    10. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline • Physiology of Drugs (Social Issues)

    11. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline Toxicity • Behavioral vs. Physiological Toxicity • Acute vs. Chronic Toxicity • DAWN (Drug Abuse Warning Network) http://www.davinciinstitute.com/new/admin/content/FCKeditor/uploads/Drug%20Toxicity%20Chart.jpg

    12. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline Recently (2009): Cocaine – 422,901 Heroin – 213,118 http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/policy/99ndcs/ii-b.html (chart) and http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k12/DAWN032/SR032Polydrug2012.htm (other data)

    13. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline • Addiction (Habit-forming) • Tolerance • Physical Dependence • Withdrawal syndrome • Physiological Dependence • Reinforcement • Crime and Violence

    14. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline Rate per 100,000 Americans

    15. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline • Chemical Commodities • Legal – Pharmaceutical Industry • Ethical vs. Proprietary • Legend vs. OTC • Proprietary vs. Generic • Illegal

    16. Heroin Production

    17. Drug Trafficking Routes

    18. Marijuana Production by State - 2006 http://www.drugscience.org/Archive/bcr2/Appendix_State_MJ_Prod.pdf

    19. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline • Drug Names • Chemical • Generic • Brand • Street

    20. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline Chemical - 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1,4-benzodiazepin-2(3H)-one Generic - Diazepam Brand – Valium® Street – Candy, Downers, Sleeping Pills, Tranks

    21. Also see this web site!!! http://www.medisupplies.ie/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/COMMON-STREET-NAMES-21.gif

    22. FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline • Drug Categories • Actions (Effect) • Stimulants • Depressants • Analgesics (Narcotics) • Hallucinogens • Cannabis • Acid/Base/Neutral • Acidic Drugs • Basic Drugs • Neutral Drugs • Scheduling of Drugs

    23. Schedule I Controlled Substances (A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse. (B) The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision. Examples – Heroin, LSD, Marijuana, Methaqualone, Mescaline, MDMA, GHB, Tryptamines, Most synthetic drugs

    24. Schedule II Controlled Substances (A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Examples - Morphine, Codeine, phencyclidine (PCP), cocaine, methadone, and methamphetamine

    25. Schedule III Controlled Substances (A) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence. Examples - Anabolic steroids, codeine and hydrocodone with aspirin or Tylenol®, and some barbiturates

    26. Schedule IV Controlled Substances (A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III. Examples - Darvon®, Talwin®, Equanil®, Valium®, and Xanax® (Diazepam, Alprazolam, Clonazepam, Flunitrazepam, etc.)

    27. Schedule V Controlled Substances (A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV. Example - Cough medicines with codeine