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ORGANIZING. Organizing is that part of managing that involves establishing an organizational structure of roles for people to fill in an organization. . ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE. The Process of developing organizational structure is referred as organizational design.

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organizing
ORGANIZING

Organizing is that part of managing that

involves establishing an

organizational structure

of roles for people to fill in an

organization

  • .
organizational structure
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

The Process of developing

organizational structure

is referred as organizational design.

It is defined as :

The set of formal tasks assigned to individuals and departments.

Formal reporting relationships, including lines of authority, decision responsibility, number of hierarchical levels, and span of managers’ control.

The design system to ensure effective coordination of employees across departments.

organizational chart
ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
  • It is a visual representation of an organization's structure.
slide4

An organizational chart shows:

  • Major positions or departments in an organization.
  • Way the positions are grouped into specific units.
  • The reporting relationships from lower to higher levels.
  • the official channels for communicating information.
chain of command
CHAIN OF COMMAND
  • The chain of command is an unbroken line of authority that links all persons in an organization and shows who reports to whom.
work specialization
WORK SPECIALIZATION

Job design

The specification of task activities associated with a particular job.

Organization performs different functions. A fundamental principle is that work can be performed more efficiently if employees are allowed to specialize. Work specialization, is the degree to which organizational tasks are sub-divided into separate jobs.

approaches to job design
APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN

JOB SIMPLIFICATION

It is the process of designing jobs so that job holders have only a small number of narrow activities to perform.

Worker

1

Worker

2

Worker

3

Task

1

Task

2

Task

3

slide9
Job rotation is the practice of periodically shifting workers through a set of jobs in a planned sequence.

JOB ROTATION

Worker

2

Worker

3

Worker

1

Task

1

Task

2

Task

3

slide10

JOB ENLARGEMENT

It is the allocation of a wider variety of similar tasks to a job in order to make it more challenging.

Worker

1

Worker

2

Worker

3

Task

1,2,3

Task

1,2,3

Task

1,2,3

job enrichment
JOB ENRICHMENT

It is the process of upgrading the job task mix in order to increase significantly the potential for growth, achievement, responsibility and recognition.

Job enrichment increases job depth, the degree to which individuals can plan and control the work involved in their jobs.

alternative work schedules
ALTERNATIVE WORK SCHEDULES

FLEXTIME

COMPRESSED

WORKSHEET

JOB SHARING

It is adjustment in the normal work schedule rather then in the job contents or activities.

slide13

FLEXTIME

Flextime is a work schedule that specifies certain hours when individuals are expected to be on the job and then allows flexibility in starting and quitting times as long as individuals work the total number of required hours per day.

slide14

COMPRESSED

WORKSHEET

The compressed worksheet is a work schedule whereby employees work more hours per day and working less number of days in a week.

slide15

JOB SHARING

Job sharing is a work practice in which two or more people share a full time job.

methods of vertical coordination
METHODS OF VERTICAL COORDINATION

Vertical coordination is linking of activities at the top of the organization with those at the middle and lower levels in order to achieve organizational goals.

Five important means of achieving effective vertical coordination are:

slide17

Formalization is the degree to which written policies, rules, procedures. Job descriptions, and other documents specify what actions are/or are not to be taken under given set of circumstances.

Formalization

It is the number of subordinates who report directly to a specific manager.

Span of management

Centralization vs.

decentralization

Centralization is the extent to which power and authority are retained at the top level, while decentralization is the extent to which power and authority are delegated to lower levels.

The assignment of part of a manger’s work to others, along with both the responsibility and the authority necessary to achieve expected results.

Delegation

A line position is a position that has authority and responsibility for achieving the major goals. A staff position is to provide specialized expertise and assistance to line positions.

Line and staff

positions

slide18

Formalization is the degree to which written policies, rules, procedures. Job descriptions, and other documents specify what actions are/or are not to be taken under given set of circumstances.

Formalization

ADVANTAGES:

  • It brings about vertical coordination by specifying expected behaviors in advance.
  • Without formalization it may become necessary to decide about certain issues every year that could be time consuming and might lead to inequities.

Avoid becoming overly formalised

DISADVANTAGES:

  • Extensive rules and procedures can be stifling and discourage necessary amounts of change and innovation.
slide19

Span of management

It is the number of subordinates who report directly to a specific manager.

  • FACTORS INFLUENCING SPAN OF MANAGEMENT
  • Low interaction requirements.
  • High competence levels.
  • Work similarity.
  • low problem frequency and seriousness.
  • Physical proximity.
  • Few non-supervisory duties of manger.
  • Considerable available assistance.
  • High motivational possibilities of work.
slide20

Tall structure

Flat structure

Highest

Highest

1

1

  • Tall organizations raise:
  • administrative overhead.
  • slow communication and decision making.
  • Make it difficult to pinpoint responsibility for various tasks.

2

2

Organization levels

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

A

B

Company ‘A’ needs 780 more managers

slide21

Downsizing is the process of

significantly reducing the layers

of middle management, increasing

the span of control, and shrinking

the size of the workforce for

the purpose of improving

Organizational efficiency and

Effectiveness.

slide22

Restructuring is the process of

Making a major change in organization

Structure that often involves reducing

Management levels and possibly changing

some major Components of the

organization through

Divestiture and/or acquisition.

slide23

Downsizing is the process of significantly reducing the layers of middle management, increasing the span of control, and shrinking the size of the workforce for the purpose of improving Organizational efficiency and Effectiveness.

Restructuring is the process of Making a major change in organization Structure that often involves reducing Management levels and possibly changing some major Components of the organization through Divestiture and/or acquisition.

slide24

FROM CENTRALIZATION TO DECENTRALIZATION

  • CENTRALIZATION
  • It can be easier to coordinate the activities of various units and individuals.
  • It can help reduce duplication of efforts and resources.
  • Top managers usually have the most experience and may make better decisions than individuals at lower levels.
  • It promotes strong leadership.
  • Large size.
  • geographic dispersion.
  • technological complexity.
  • Environmental uncertainty.
  • DECENTRALIZATION
  • Encouraging decision making at lower levels tends to ease the heavy workload of executives.
  • Enriches the jobs of lower level employees.
  • Faster decision making at lower level.
  • Individuals at lower levels may be closer to the problem and therefore in a better position to make a good decision.
slide25

Delegation

The assignment of part of a manger’s work to others, along with both the responsibility and the authority necessary to achieve expected results.

slide26

A line position is a position that has authority and responsibility for achieving the major goals. A staff position is to provide specialized expertise and assistance to line positions.

Line and staff

positions

Line Departments have line authority which is authority that follows the chain of command established by the formal hierarchy.

Staff departments have functional authority which is authority over others in the organization in matters related directly to their respective functions.

slide27

Staff positions:

  • Information system
  • Human resource.
  • Finance
  • legal
  • Administrative services.