Cotton- Production of Plants By: Arun Balakrishnan and Sahilpreet Deol
Plant Source • Cotton derives from a plant called the Cotton Plant • The Cotton Plant is a small plant which has broad three-lobed leaves and seeds in capsules • The seeds have a white material which is where we get our cotton • The cotton plant is found in tropical countries where it is temperate • The seed is used to make the product because the raw cotton is then spindled
The History of Cotton • Scientists have found cotton from all the way back seven thousand years ago • People first grew cotton in India at the year 2500 B.C • Cotton was also used in Egypt and Peru • Cotton was then grew by American Indians in the 1500’s • Spaniards also grew cotton in Florida in 1556 • In the 1700’s, Britain banned the manufacturing and imports of cotton to protect the wool industry
The History of Cotton- Continued • By the early 1600’s, cotton was already introduced in North America • Samuel Slater created the first cotton mill in 1979 in America • In 1793, Eli Whitney created the Cotton Gin which made a more effective method of separating the fibres from the seed
Natural History of Cotton • Cotton is a natural fibre from the cotton plant • It is made mostly of cellulose, and made of fibres that form cotton • The cotton plant can grow up to 10 metres in the wild but only 1 to 2 metres when commercial grown • The cotton plant is grown in dry tropical and subtropical areas • It is grown annually as the cotton fibres range from 2-5 cm in length
Natural History of Cotton- Continued • Cotton is usually produced in tropical countries but not always • Cotton is grown in Southern Australia even though it is highly vulnerable to freezing temperatures • In 2008, there were 65 listed countries as cotton-picking countries • Cotton picking is important in west and central Africa where 10 million people depend on it
Use of the Plant Canada • Turns raw cotton into fibres and then into fabrics with the process of cotton production Worldwide • Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. • Bath towels and robes; denim for blue jeans; chambray, corduroy, seersucker, and cotton twill. Socks, underwear, and most T-shirts.
Health and Nutritional Health-wise • It does not do any harm to your body as most of the clothing you wear is probably cotton • However if you are allergic to cotton, this will cause skin rashes. Nutrition-wise • Cotton is not toxic but can cause intestinal blockage and other digestive problems. • So I guess there's no cotton for dinner tonight!
Cotton to Textile Steps • It takes about 6-7 months before harvesting cotton • The cotton is dried and then it is: • Separated from the seed • Making cotton soft to prepare for rolling • Rolling cotton into yarn • Before yarn can be dyed, it’s dipped in gruel and then dried
Cotton to Textile Steps- Continued • The oldest method to turn yarn into fabric is weaving • Modern factories use high-speed weaving machines which can wave around 2000 metres of fabric on the loom in a minute • There are three different types of weaves: • Plain Weave: used to make gingham, perhales, chambray, batistes, and other fabrics • Twill Weave: used to make fabrics such as denim, gabardine, herringbone, and ticking • Satin Weave: used to make smooth fabrics like high sheen
Environmental Impact of Cotton • Cotton is one of the world’s dirtiest crops because of the large use of insecticides • Insecticides are the most dangerous pesticide to humans and animals’ health • Cotton takes about 2.5% of all land yet 16% of the world’s insecticides are used to cultivate it • Chemicals such asAldicarb, parathion, and methamidopho are used to cultivate cotton
Environmental Impact of Cotton- Continued • Chemicals used to make cotton like heavy metals, formaldehyde, azo dyes, benzidine or chlorine bleachcontribute to pollution. • Some of them affect consumers health and are suspected of causing allergies, eczema or cancer. • Many of the chemicals used runoff into local water and kills fish
Importance to Society • The world uses cotton more than any fibre • The cotton industry is the United States’ Cash Crop • Farming cotton make an industry that it worth 5.3 billion worldwide • Business revenue created by cotton goes over 120 billion in the United States • Cotton is a part of one’s daily life because it is used in large uses such as clothing and household items
Importance to Society- Continued • The parts of a cotton plant are very important • Cotton is used to make fabrics while the lint provides cellulose in the production of plastics, and explosives • Cotton is a very important commodity around the world • In many countries, cotton counts for a large portion of foreign trading • In many countries, it also contributes the countries’ GDP and tax income • Everyone wears clothes made of cotton • It is the most common material in terms of clothing
References • Cotton and the Environment - Organic Trade Association. (n.d.). Organic Trade Association. Retrieved October 1, 2011, from http://www.ota.com/organic/environment/cotton_environment.html • organic cotton - Social & Environmental Impact. (n.d.). organic cotton - Global Organic Cotton Community Platform. Retrieved October 1, 2011, from http://www.organiccotton.org/oc/Cotton-general/Impact-of-cotton/Impact-of-cotton.php • Body. (n.d.). Curl Bros. Textiles Ltd. - Manufacturers of Curl Yarns.. Retrieved October 1, 2011, from http://www.curlbros.com/cottinfo.htm • Is it safe to eat cotton balls-Diet Questions answered. (n.d.). Medical questions-Answer my health question-Themedicalquestions.com. Retrieved October 1, 2011, from http://www.themedicalquestions.com/diet/is-it-safe-to-eat-cotton-balls.html • "Cotton: From Field to Fabric- Dyeing, Printing & Finishing."National Cotton Council of America. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. <http://www.cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/fieldtofabric/dyeing.cfm>.
References- Continued • "The importance of cotton in world trade." Cotton Exporter's Guide. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. <http://www.cottonguide.org/the-world-cotton-market/the-importance-of-cotton-in-world-trade>. • "Cotton's Journey - The Story of Cotton - HISTORY." Cotton's Journey. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. <http://www.cottonsjourney.com • "textile :: Production of fabric -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/589392/textile/60765/Production-of-fabric>. • "Cotton: From Field to Fabric- Dyeing, Printing & Finishing."National Cotton Council of America. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. <http://www.cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/fieldtofabric/fabric.cfm