chapter 8 2 the nervous system
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Chapter 8.2: The Nervous System

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Chapter 8.2: The Nervous System. Neuroglia. Astrocytes Largest and most numerous Maintain blood-brain barrier Isolates CNS from circulation Capillaries impermeable Repair damaged neural tissue. Figure 8.4. Neuroglia cont…. Oligodendrocytes Coats axons with myelin Nodes of Ranvier

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neuroglia
Neuroglia
  • Astrocytes
  • Largest and most numerous
  • Maintain blood-brain barrier
  • Isolates CNS from circulation
  • Capillaries impermeable
  • Repair damaged neural tissue
neuroglia cont
Neuroglia cont…
  • Oligodendrocytes
  • Coats axons with myelin
  • Nodes of Ranvier
  • Parts of axon with no myelin
  • Internodes
  • Parts of axon with myelin
  • Myelin increases speed of action potential
neuroglia cont1
Neuroglia cont…
  • Microglia
  • Engulf wastes and pathogens
neuroglia cont2
Neuroglia cont…
  • Ependymal Cells
  • Produces cerebrospinal fluid
neuroglia cont3
Neuroglia cont…
  • Satellite Cells
  • Support cell bodies
  • Schwann Cells
  • Covers axons—called neurilemma
demyelination disorders
Demyelination Disorders
  • Demyelination
  • Progressive destruction of myelin
  • Inflammation
  • Axon Damage
  • Scarring of neural tissue
  • Gradual loss of sensation and motor control
  • Numbness and paralysis
disorders cont
Disorders cont…
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  • Optic nerve, brain and spinal cord affected
  • Partial loss of vision
  • Problems with speech, balance and motor coordination
neuron anatomy
Neuron Anatomy
  • Neuron cell bodies—gray matter
  • Located in ganglia of PNS
  • White matter—bundles of axons
  • Called nerves
membrane potential
Membrane Potential
  • Polarized—resting cell membrane
  • Resting Potential—membrane potential of resting neuron
  • -70mV
  • More negative ions inside than out of neuron
potential cont
Potential cont…
  • Depolarization
  • Shift membrane potential towards positive
  • Ex: 0 mV
potential cont1
Potential Cont…
  • Hyperpolarization
  • Shift membrane potential towards more negative
  • Ex: - 80 mV
potential cont2
Potential cont…
  • Action Potential
  • Triggered by depolarization
  • Membrane potential must reach threshold
  • -60 mV
potential cont3
Potential cont…
  • Repolarization
  • Return to resting potential
ad