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OFFICE OF SCIENCE. Closeout Report for the Star Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) Project at Brookhaven National Laboratory July 18, 2012. Ethan Merrill Review Committee Chair Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy http://www.science.doe.gov/opa/. OFFICE OF SCIENCE.
OFFICE OFSCIENCE Closeout Report for the Star Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) Project at Brookhaven National Laboratory July 18, 2012 Ethan Merrill Review Committee Chair Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy http://www.science.doe.gov/opa/
OFFICE OFSCIENCE Department of EnergyReview Committee Ethan Merrill, DOE/SC, Chairperson Subcommittee 1: Pixel Detector *Tim Nelson, SLAC Subcommittee 2 : IntermediateSilicon Tracker/SiliconStrip Detector *Ron Lipton, FNAL Subcommittee 3: Electronics *Rick van Berg, U. Of PA Observers Subcommittee 4: Integration Helmut Marsiske , DOE/SC *Glenn Young, TJNAF Jehanne Gillo, DOE/SC James Sowinski , DOE/SCSubcommittee 5: Safety/ESH Lloyd Nelson, DOE/BHSO *Steve Hoey, BNL Mike Holland , DOE/BHSO Subcommittee 6: Cost and Schedule/Management *Joe May, DOE/SC [ ] Part-Time [Glenn Young, TJNAF] Review Committee Participants
Charge Questions OFFICE OFSCIENCE Technical: Is the design of the STAR HFT MIE technically sound? Are there plans in place for resolving any remaining technical issues to meet the CD-4, Approve Start of Operations, performance requirements? Cost, Schedule, Risk, and Contingency: Are there adequate resources to complete the project within the cost and schedule of the approved performance baseline? Is there adequate cost and schedule contingency to address the remaining risks? Management: Is the project being properly organized, staffed, and managed for its successful execution? Are plans being developed for the transition to operations and for achieving optimal performance following project completion? ES&H: Are ES&H aspects being properly addressed? Are Integrated Safety Management Principles being followed? Prior Reviews: Has the project responded appropriately to the recommendations from previous reviews?
2.1 Pixel Detector Tim Nelson, SLAC OFFICE OFSCIENCE Technical: Is the design of the STAR HFT MIE technically sound? Are there plans in place for resolving any remaining technical issues to meet the CD-4, Approve Start of Operations, performance requirements? Yes to both. Prior Reviews: Has the project responded appropriately to the recommendations from previous reviews? Yes.
2.1 Pixel Detector Tim Nelson, SLAC OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Findings • The pixel project has made excellent progress towards completion of the detector since CD-2/3 approval. • The decision to use “ultimate” sensors for the engineering run has enabled accelerated progress towards implementation of final designs and the management team has successfully reorganized work and procurement to take advantage of resulting efficiencies. • The first prototype modules have been assembled, are undergoing testing, and are performing well in all respects. • The prototype modules differ significantly from those planned for production only in the use of Cu/Kapton cables. • Contingencies assigned to the remaining risks are still appropriate to ensuring successful completion of the project.
2.1 Pixel Detector Tim Nelson, SLAC OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Comments • The largest risk to completion of the detector as envisioned is a failure by CERN to quickly and successfully produce Al/Kapton cables and investigation of alternate vendors is encouraged. However, use of Cu/Kapton cables in the final detector still satisfies the KPP. • Yield issues from ESD have been identified and are being addressed with both engineering changes and process controls. Further efforts should be made to identify the exact causes of the damage. • While significant yield issues may remain, current yield estimates are reasonable and contingencies could be used to mitigate any likely problems.
2.1 Pixel Detector Tim Nelson, SLAC OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Comments (cont’d) • Because lack of time and necessary infrastructure precludes full system testing, the project should consider whatever large scale testing may be possible within constraints. • Time is short for early finish project completion and management should remain vigilant against new issues that could create significant delays.
2.1 Pixel Detector Tim Nelson, SLAC OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Recommendations • None.
2.2 Intermediate Silicon Tracker/Silicon Strip DetectorRon Lipton, FNAL OFFICE OFSCIENCE Technical: Is the design of the STAR HFT MIE technically sound? Are there plans in place for resolving any remaining technical issues to meet the CD-4, Approve Start of Operations, performance requirements? – The overall design is technically sound. With the exception of the SSD, plans are in place to meet remaining technical issues. Prior Reviews: Has the project responded appropriately to the recommendations from previous reviews?Yes
General Comments • 1.5 years before installation none of the subsystems is in full final production. Production ramp-up can be slow as nagging problems are found and management needs to be particularly vigilant in the next few months. Both the SSD and IST have had slippage in milestones of 3-6 months, making completion of these subsystems by the 2014 run a significant concern. Of the two the SSD appears to be in more trouble, with significant risk of missing the run unless additional resources are found. The problems faced by the SSD are mainly those of engineering resources. • HFT production will be going on in parallel at 4 institutions across the country. The HFT management should insure that it is well informed on progress (~weekly) and able to step in quickly to mitigate incipient production delays.
IST Findings • The IST system consists of 24 staves, with 6 sensors and 36 APV chips per stave, cooling, cabling, and readout. Production of 27 staves (3 spares) is planned. • The IST has successfully produced and tested a prototype stave. The ladders have satisfactory noise performance and have been tested with cosmic rays. Production procedures have been established and fixtures are available. • The IST sensor order is in process at MIT, with first delivery of sensors from Hamamatsu expected 3 months after the order is placed. Delivery is staged, with three partial shipments. The flex circuits and lamination to supports should not pace the production of ladders • The readout system is 80% complete. STAR has used a similar APV-based system for the FGT. • Production is scheduled to begin at Fermilab/UIC October 1st.The IST group plans to fabricate 1 ladder/day at BNL-MIT and Fermilab.
IST Comments • The IST design is technically sound - The IST has made significant progress toward full production. Working test ladders have been fabricated. It appears that most technical issues are under control. The subsystem uses reliable vendors and known components, such as Hamamatsu sensors and APV chips. • Completion of the IST for Run 14 depends on timely delivery of sensors from Hamamatsu. Production issues at Hamamatsu are unusual but not unprecedented. The subproject should be proactive in understanding if such delays occur and how to mitigate the resulting schedule delay. • Wire bonding to kapton substrates can be unreliable unless the materials are properly prepared. The group should consider sacrificial bond pull tests and reliability studies as part of the production process.
IST Comments • The schedule slippage for the IST is a concern, but is not yet critical. The slippage is partially offset by the commissioning of a second production facility at Fermilab and UIC. Setting up such a second production facility requires duplication of fixtures, readout and test systems, as well as training technicians. This needs to be accomplished quickly to meet the schedule. It is encouraging that the Fermilab technical staff already has sample parts to begin this process. The most challenging part may be negotiation between the project and the laboratories to put an MOU and funding in place. • The IST group plans to fabricate 1 ladder/day at BNL-MIT and Fermilab. This seems achievable. Several shipments are required between BNL and MIT for each ladder which may slow the production rate. • The IST group should plan subsystem tests of multiple ladders as part of the assembly and testing process in the BNL clean room. Additional cable sets will need to be purchased to enable this testing.
SSD Findings • The SSD project has missed milestones by ~3 months. Mistakes in the layout in the ladder card FPGA and ladder testing have resulted in a delay of 6 months or more in the qualification of the prototype ladder board. • There have not yet been tests of an SSD ladder with the sensors attached to prototype readout ladder boards. • A readout (RDO) board has been completed and is being fabricated • A set of test static and dynamic test cards are being built to allow testing of ladder boards without connecting to ladder flex circuits, which have limited connection cycles. • There are a number of mechanical items yet to be completed, splitting the shroud,routing air & vacuum, fabricating ladder mounts and cable and hose routing • A recent review of the ladder board design found significant design issues and has recommended a redesign of the board. The time scale for this redesign is unclear. • SSD ladders have been refurbished at Subatech and will be surveyed at LBNL.
SSD Comments • The SSD is on the critical path and is in serious danger of not making the 2014 run. • A mistake in the layout in the ladder card FPGA resulted in a significant delay in the SSD subproject. There have also been significant delays in developing testing infrastructure and testing the prototype card on a ladder. • Review of the current ladder board found several problems. The ADC level adapter circuit is referenced to a remote power supply rather than local ground, making it susceptible to ripple and PS transients. It does not have any on-board power regulation, also making it susceptible to power supply ripple and load transients. Fixing these problems does not appear to be technically difficult.
SSD Comments • A definite near-term date should be established to provide a revised design of the ladder board to specifications supplied by the STAR project. This could be Subatech or another vendor. • The SSD subproject does not currently have enough electrical engineering resources for system design, assembly, and testing to have confidence that the ladders will be available for the 2014 run. • SSD ladders are now at Subatech. They should be shipped to LBNL to begin the survey and qualification process.
SSD Recommendations • Identify additional experienced electrical engineering as soon as possible to support the SSD system. The SSD engineering team should have analog and digital experience. • Redesign and fabricate a revised ladder card within the next 8 weeks. • Test the existing ladder card prototype on a ladder as soon as possible. • Review progress toward SSD completion in two months, including ladder card design and prototyping, testing and readout infrastructure, and additional engineering support.
OFFICE OFSCIENCE 2.3 Electronics Rick Van Berg, U. of PA Technical: Is the design of the STAR HFT MIE technically sound? Are there plans in place for resolving any remaining technical issues to meet the CD-4, Approve Start of Operations, performance requirements? ~Yes Prior Reviews: Has the project responded appropriately to the recommendations from previous reviews? Yes
OFFICE OFSCIENCE 2.3 Electronics Rick Van Berg, U. of PA HFT – Findings The HFT team has made very considerable progress since the last review and most of the electronics is well into the prototyping phase and nearly ready for pre-production. HFT – Comments In contrast to the mechanical side, no single person seems to be acting to co-ordinate and oversee the electronics for the entire HFT. The draft grounding and shielding plan is a good start but as presented seems like three separate plans pasted together into one document. A plan with a broader view of the HFT as a whole would probably be more helpful. In addition, the draft plan seriously overloads the meaning of the word “ground” leading to much potential (pun intended) confusion. A more helpful approach would be to separately identify reference potentials, return current paths, safety “grounds” and so forth.
OFFICE OFSCIENCE 2.3 Electronics Rick Van Berg, U. of PA • Pixel – Findings • The Pixel detector electronics design is based upon FPGA control and readout of a novel MAPs detector element. The overall design appears to be well thought out and the initial tests are very encouraging. No obvious “show stoppers” exist. The development and production plans appear to be well developed and adequate. • Pixel - Comments • The pixel cable is a very aggressive aluminum-Kapton design, at present with only one known supplier. Developing a second supplier might be helpful. The ability to back off to a more traditional but higher Z Cu-Kapton design with only moderate loss to the physics is reassuring as are the efforts to do prototype tests of Al cables in the immediate future.
OFFICE OFSCIENCE 2.3 Electronics Rick Van Berg, U. of PA • IST – Findings • The IST cosmic ray tests using fully developed (if partially populated) prototypes give great confidence that the system design is robust and nearly ready for production. • The detector readout is based upon the well known APV25-S1 front end chip from CMS – which should reduce risks. • The team plans to replace the ARC-I card with a revised ARC-II card but could fall back to using the present ARC-I cards.
OFFICE OFSCIENCE 2.3 Electronics Rick Van Berg, U. of PA • SSD – Findings • The Silicon Strip Detector is based on the re-use of the original STAR SSD detector staves with a new “Ladder Card” to provide faster readout into the upgraded STAR DAQ system. The new Ladder Card is coupled to a new VME based RDO card. The Ladder Card is the responsibility of SUBATECH in Nantes, the RDO card is the responsibility of the BNL group. • SSD – Comments • Initial bench testing of the single channel RDO prototype card is encouraging and the team seems on track to produce a final prototype. However, a complete chain test (sensors – Ladder Card – RDO) has not yet been started. • The prototype Ladder Card uses a large number of Tantalum capacitors. This is probably not advisable for a production card buried inside a detector, especially in a radiation zone. Ceramic devices are available as direct replacements and should be considered. • The schedule is very tight, but it does not seem impossible to meet a Run 14 installation schedule if the effort on the SSD is significantly increased.
OFFICE OFSCIENCE 2.3 Electronics Rick Van Berg, U. of PA SSD – Comments (cont.) The Ladder Card uses a relatively complex rigid-flex technology to achieve the required packing density and to solve a complex geometric problem. This raises some risk of board problems and early and aggressive testing of multiple prototype cards is advisable in order to reduce this risk to a manageable level. The arrangement of potentials and references for the silicon strip detectors is complex as both p and n type signals are used (positive signals to the Ladder Card at one end of the stave and negative to the Ladder Card at the opposite end). This opens a risk that inadvertent or unwise reference choices could greatly decrease the signal to noise performance of the system. Early chain tests including reading out (and characterizing the signal to noise) both ends of a ladder are vital to understanding if the present design is adequate.
OFFICE OFSCIENCE 2.3 Electronics Rick Van Berg, U. of PA SSD – Comments (cont.) The grounding and shielding plan indicates that a sensor bias supply is directly connected to a readout chip power supply in order to achieve the correct relative potential. The separation of potentials via a buffer amplifier or an entirely separate provision for achieving the correct relative potential would seem to be advisable. The power for the sensor front end chips is not locally regulated at the Ladder Cards but comes from a remote bulk supply. Ladder Card based linear regulators would significantly reduce the risk of oscillations and stave to stave interactions. There is some indication that the analog level shifting on the Ladder Card is improperly biased. Tests to verify (or refute) this possible risk to the detector signal to noise performance would seem to be very high priority. The SSD subproject does not seem to have adequate resources to simultaneously develop the RDO, the Ladder Card and to carry out an aggressive chain test.
OFFICE OFSCIENCE 2.3 Electronics Rick Van Berg, U. of PA SSD - Recommendation Identify at least one and possibly two additional full time persons with a mixture of analog and digital electronics skills to concentrate on assembling and carrying out the chain test and support RDO development and Ladder Card testing.
OFFICE OFSCIENCE 2.4 Integration Glenn Young, TJNAF Technical: Is the design of the STAR HFT MIE technically sound? Are there plans in place for resolving any remaining technical issues to meet the CD-4, Approve Start of Operations, performance requirements? Yes (from integration standpoint) Prior Reviews: Has the project responded appropriately to the recommendations from previous reviews? Yes (from integration standpoint : milestones being tracked for LBNL Composite Shop, and assembly documents & database generated)
2.4 Integration: Findings • Findings • The Integration effort includes the support structure, services routing, assembly of the support structure and installation of the HFT into STAR, interface to C-AD and STSG, and technical support services to subsystems • The integration group has planned the key critical lift (value is >$300K) with approval expected August 2012 • The STAR TPC is sensitive to thermal gradients, thus HFT is designed to be thermally neutral, solving a key interface requirement • Services include power, signal cabling, cooling via air and/or fluid. The cross section for services has been defined and verified using final detector cabling and cooling • The IDS has been installed and its electrostatics verified to co-exist with the TPC inner field cage • The MSC will be installed this year, which will verify its assembly and associated tooling and enable the PXL engineering run • Tooling and fixtures are prepared and exercised, clearances have been checked, load transfer documents written, and procedures and specifications prepared for handling and assembly steps.
2.4 Integration: Findings (cont.) • Findings (cont.) • The beam-pipe, which is off-project, is having getter material added, has heating jackets prepared, and is expected by August in time for installation into STAR • There was no presentation of the STAR grounding plan, but documentation was provided and the integration team includes electrical and electronics engineers • Interface control documents are defined and maintained using live information from assembled devices. Detector final design choices and assembly needs are accounted for, and information is being provided to the online software and database efforts • The detector cooling system is designed and is in procurement (PXL), builds on an existing design (IST), or even is partially installed (SSD) • The key procurements and deliveries to maintain schedule have been defined (e.g. PXL platform, beam-pipe support, cooling systems) • The detailed CAD model has been used to define cable and fiber maximum lengths, and the STSG has assigned rack locations, so that these procurements may proceed. Patch panels remain to be done but use standard connectors, avoiding one potential cause of schedule slippage
2.4 Integration: Comments • Comments • The staged approach to design and installation of the support structure has successfully mitigated risks associated with the delicate carbon fiber support structure and, by avoiding one design iteration, helped both cost and schedule. • The inclusion of detailed information from the mechanical surveys (e.g. CMMs) into the online software is proactive and should help reduce time-to-physics during analysis of beam data. • Materials chosen for the support structure should withstand >10x the lifetime radiation dose expected in STAR operation, removing this source of future concern. • Procurements and series production are in early stages for the detector elements. Attention is needed to be sure accepted units meet specifications so the assembled subsystems need minimal re-work. • Steady workflow must be maintained for this year’s addition of IDS and the PXL test elements to allow for beam-pipe installation and bake-out by mid-October. Schedule margins are adequate but not large. Management must closely monitor progress and ensure resources are available for this.
2.4 Integration: Recommendations • Recommendations • None
3. Environment, Safety and Health Steve Hoey, BNL OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Charge Questions • 4. ES&H: Are ES&H aspects being properly addressed? Are Integrated Safety Management Principles being followed? YES • 5. Prior Reviews: Has the project responded appropriately to the recommendations from previous reviews? YES • Findings • DOE Order 413.3B ESSH&Q Project requirements are in place and adequate including the Preliminary Hazards Analysis Report (PHAR), Integrated Safety Management system, Safeguards and Security requirements and NEPA determination and QA program. • Project uses BNL institutional ISM and QA programs • ESSH/QA Coordinator assigned to project • Systems are in place for hazard identification and control • Lessons learned from other projects have been considered for HTF
3. Environment, Safety and Health Steve Hoey, BNL OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Comments • Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) report for the HFT Project Document is comprehensive and meets the intent of DOE O413.3B • An Unreviewed Safety Issue (USI) determination for the RHIC SAD and ASE was completed, concluding that hazards associated with the HTF project are covered within the existing authorization basis. • A NEPA review was conducted and concluded that the HFT proposed actions fall within the scope of the RHIC Environmental Assessment, DOE EA #0508. • The Project uses BNL SBMS to identify and control hazards for all equipment and work at BNL for the HFT. The Physics Department and the C-AD have review processes that comply with the BNL SBMS. Designs and work procedures are reviewed by the appropriate laboratory or department review committees. • Project uses the BNL Quality Assurance Program. This program meets the requirements of DOE Order 414.1D “Quality Assurance”, however a project specific plan would provide the detail necessary to adequately integrate all the various subsystems. This plan should cover all testing, fabrication and commissioning, and provide guidance for all subsystems to follow similar protocols and requirements. • Lessons Learned have been utilized by the Project; lessons being learned should be captured as the project progresses.
3. Environment, Safety and Health Steve Hoey, BNL OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Recommendations • The Project should develop and implement a comprehensive QA/QC Plan specific to the project that flows down the requirements from 414.1D & SBMS, by October 2012 • The Project should develop a mechanism to captured and document Lessons Learned as the project progresses, by October 2012
4. Cost and Schedule Joe May, DOE/SC Glenn Young, TJNAF OFFICE OFSCIENCE Cost, Schedule, Risk, and Contingency: Are there adequate resources to complete the project within the cost and schedule of the approved performance baseline? Is there adequate cost and schedule contingency to address the remaining risks? YES Prior Reviews: Has the project responded appropriately to the recommendations from previous reviews? YES
4. Cost and Schedule Joe May, DOE/SC Glenn Young, TJNAF OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Findings • Funding profile is $15.2M • FY12 funding level is $3.05M • 11 Procurements totaling ~$1.7M left be to Awarded • Contingency is $3.458M (BAC) – 39% (ETC) • $196K of Contingency has been used • 18 months of schedule contingency • Schedules have been maintained and updated by subsystem managers and analyzed by management • Schedule has been progressed and updated on a monthly basis
4. Cost and Schedule Joe May, DOE/SC Glenn Young, TJNAF OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Findings • Changes within Level 3 milestones have been managed and overall critical path remains same • HFT continues to have “multiple” near critical paths running through each of the three detector systems • Schedule has 17 months schedule contingency • Overall Risk Management Program is in-place • The PXL detector currently has 4 months of float • The IST detector has 5 months of float • The SSD detector is on the near critical path with 1 month of float
4. Cost and Schedule Joe May, DOE/SC Glenn Young, TJNAF OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Comments • Program has committed to increasing FY12 funding level $1M from $3.05M to $4.05M • Cost Contingency is being effectively managed • Need to ensure IST schedule impacts will still allow for achieving Level 2 milestones • Project leadership should aggressively address SSD schedule impacts to increase schedule float on the critical path
4. Cost and Schedule Joe May, DOE/SC Glenn Young, TJNAF OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Recommendation • Optimize SSD schedule to alleviate impact on project critical path by August 31, 2012
4. Cost and Schedule Joe May, DOE/SC Glenn Young, TJNAF OFFICE OFSCIENCE
5. ManagementJoe May, DOE/SC Glenn Young, TJNAF OFFICE OFSCIENCE • Management: Is the project being properly organized, staffed, and managed for its successful execution? Are plans being developed for the transition to operations and for achieving optimal performance following project completion? YES • Prior Reviews: Has the project responded appropriately to the recommendations from previous reviews? YES
5. ManagementJoe May, DOE/SC Glenn Young, TJNAF OFFICE OFSCIENCE Findings • There have been some management changes:Integration manager; IST manager; HFT/Physics liaison; ES&H manager • UIC has joined the HFT, in particular IST effort; FNAL agreed to perform bonding for half of IST • Nearly all MOUs are in-place with the exception of UIC, which is in progress • Transition to Operations plan drafted
5. ManagementJoe May, DOE/SC Glenn Young, TJNAF OFFICE OFSCIENCE Comments • Project leadership should aggressively address SSD schedule impacts independent of the availability of SUBATECH staff • Impacts of the RHIC run alternatives should be evaluated and “socialized” among the RHIC community and RHIC management • Project leadership should closely monitor Fall 2012 installation and then assure timely completion of analysis of test-run results. Project leadership should advocate for the short Au-Au run.
5. ManagementJoe May, DOE/SC Glenn Young, TJNAF OFFICE OFSCIENCE Recommendations • Develop plan and initiate actions to address SSD performance by August 31, 2012, and report the plan to DOE • Analyze impact on the project schedule of FY13/FY14 RHIC run options, including the opportunity to install PXL and IST early, and report schedule options to DOE • Conduct mini-review in October 2012