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CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION . UNIT –IV Contracts. List of topics . Introduction of contracts Types of contracts Tender drafting and Tender analysis Conditions of contract Stages of awarding contract Procedure for execution of PWD works Safety in construction

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list of topics
List of topics
  • Introduction of contracts
  • Types of contracts
  • Tender drafting and Tender analysis
      • Conditions of contract
  • Stages of awarding contract
    • Procedure for execution of PWD works
  • Safety in construction
  • Workmen compensation act
  • Contract labor act
  • Demolition of buildings
safety in construction
Safety in construction

Importance of safety in construction

  • Construction is highly accident prone industry
  • In India , construction industry is labour intensive , with unskilled and untrained worker. Fatal accidents and minor accidents are very frequent
  • Safety management is to minimize human pain and suffering , to the worker's family or to the worker , that results due to accident or work induced illness
  • Safety programme ensures the worker to be mentally and physically prepared to execute a job quickly ,fearlessly and efficiently
  • The cost and time is also dependent on the safety management
  • A company with a better culture of safety attracts the right kinds of employees and builds a good , consistent safety record
the major causes of accidents
The major causes of accidents

The major causes of accidents in construction industry are due to –

1. Fall from high elevation

2. Electrocution

3. Being struck by equipment

4. Being caught by equipment

5. Trench excavation , cave-in

6. Drowning ( bridge and offshore construction )

7. Overexertion

It has been found that more than 40-50% of accidents due to fall from height or fall of an object

safety measures
Safety measures


Drilling and blasting

Hot bituminous works

Scaffolding, ladders, form work and other equipment

Fabrication and erection



Fire safety

safety measures for excavation
Safety measures for Excavation

Experienced and competent foreman/ supervisor should look after the job

Before doing the excavation work, complete knowledge of underground structures is essential and proper precautions should be taken to prevent accident

All the persons involved in the job must wear safety helmet (PPE)

Trenches exceeding 2m in depth should be securely shored and timbered

Sheathing should be placed against the side of the trench

Around the excavated areas barricades should be erected and at nights adequate lighting should be provided

safety measures for drilling and blasting
Safety measures for Drilling and Blasting

To transport small quantities of explosives specially designed insulated water proof containers free from nails shall be used

Vehicles to be used for transporting explosives should be in good condition with tight wooden floors

Smoking is strictly prohibited near areas where explosives are stored

Explosives should be stored only in magazine which is clean, dry well ventilated reasonably cool, bullet and fire resistant

Explosives and fuse lighters should not be stored in a damp places or near oil, gasoline or steam pipes or other source of heat

Any package containing explosives should not be dragged, dropped or handled roughly and these packages should be opened only at a safe distance from the package of bulk storage

No person should attempt to uncoil the wires and open the bare leading wires of the electric blasting caps (detonators) during dust storms

safety measures for hot bituminous works
Safety measures for Hot bituminous works

On all major works, an experienced foreman or supervisor should be placed in-charge of the work

Workers engaged in bitumen handling job should use boots, gloves, goggles and helmets

Sufficient stocks of clean dry sand should be made available near bitumen heating site

Bitumen mixing plants should be provided with safe means of access. Working platforms should be provided with hand rails, and pulleys belts and drive mechanisms should all be suitably guarded

Compressors, electrical installations and other equipment such as elevators and conveyors should be adequately protected from weather, mechanical damage and dust particles

When bitumen plants are working on a public road, an adequate traffic control system must be established

safety measures for scaffolding ladders form work and other equipment
Safety measures for Scaffolding, ladders, form work and other equipment

Every scaffold should be securely supported or suspended and properly strutted or braced to ensure stability

All scaffolds and working platforms should be securely fastened to the building or structure

During dismantling of scaffolds, necessary precautions should be taken to prevent fall of loose materials, bracings and other parts of scaffolds

The supporting ballies for formwork should be checked for each individual member. The ballies should be properly braced. Many accident occur due to negligence on this account

All operators and supervisors of machines should be thoroughly trained in operating the machines and equipment

safety measures for fabrication and erection
Safety measures for Fabrication and erection

All equipment such as gas cutting and welding sets, drills, power hacksaws, grinders etc. should be checked periodically to ensure their safe working

Moving parts of all equipment should be provided with safety gaurds

Workers engaged in gas cutting & welding works should wear suitable PPE such as gloves, apron, welding screen etc.

Power cables for all equipment should be properly insulated and protected from damage and cuts

Danger signs should be prominently displayed on all poles of overhead electric lines at site

Cut pieces and scrap should be stored at a appropriate place to avoid accidents

All lifting tools and tackles such as wire ropes, U-clamps, shackles, chain pulley blocks hooks etc. should be checked thoroughly before use

safety measures in storage
Safety measures In Storage

Timber including sleepers, runners, scantlings, bullies, plywood etc. should be stored separately in neat stacks. Adequate space should be left in between the stacks to avoid fire hazard

Petroleum products should be separately stored and open fire/smoking should be strictly prohibited

Adequate fire fighting arrangements should be provided

Explosives must be stored in proper magazines

fire safety in buildings
Fire Safety in Buildings
  • Early warning systems
    • Smoke detectors
    • Heat sensitive detectors
  • All buildings should satisfy fire safety requirements as per IS:1256-1967
    • All multistoreyed buildings must have separate staircases at every 30m distance in addition to lifts
  • Spacing of buildings should ensure adequate protection against exposure of hazards as per IS:1643-1960
  • Chimney flues and smoke pipes should be provided in accordance with IS:1645-1960
  • Fire safety for electrical installations in buildings should be as per 1646-1982
  • The design of different structural elements should take into account the fire resistance ratings as per IS:1641-1960
  • During construction, fire hazards due to electric short circuit can be avoided by proper wiring. Naked and loose wiring should be prohibited. Open fires should be prohibited on construction sites whre inflammable materials are stored
safety guidelines for personnel conduct
Safety guidelines for Personnel Conduct

Employees should always wear hard hats , safety shoes , eye protection , ear protection , in noisy areas (PPE)

Equipment operator should have the license and training with the equipment operation and safety norms

Stay out of dangerous places

One should not work alone on the site , when other employees are not on the site

New employees should make themselves conversant with safety norms from senior persons of the department

safety plan
Safety plan

Some of the major components of a company safety plan should be

First aid equipment should be available and known to the employees

Every employeeshould havepersonal safety equipment .

Formal training program for each employee should be mandatory

Procedures for emergency evacuation of injured employees should be clearly explained and employees should be trained for such situations

Safety record and accident report of the company should be honestly examined

Site visit requirement for supervisory personnel plays a very important role in safety management

Training for all supervisors and the managers should be mandatory

workmen compensation act 1923 amended 2009
Workmen compensation act -1923 (amended 2009)
  • Provisions:
    • Payment of compensation to workmen for injury by accident sustained during the course of employment
    • It covers workers employed in hazardous jobs
    • It does not include clerical and administrative staff
  • No compensation if injuries are due to
    • Negligence of a worker by willful disobedience of safety and security regulations
    • Non-observance of safety measures and not using safety guards
    • Influence of liquor or drugs
    • Diseases which are not caused as result of working on the job
workmen compensation act 1923 amended 20091
Workmen compensation act -1923 (amended 2009)
  • Amount of compensation depends on
    • Age of workmen
    • Type of injury and disablement
    • Percent loss of earning capacity
  • Medical examination
    • With in 3days of injury
    • No compensation if workmen refuses medical examination
    • If workmen dies without medical examination, dependents can claim compensation
  • Appointment of commissioners
    • For resolving disputes arising out of claims
    • Payments are made through commissioner
contract labor regulation abolition act 1970
Contract labor (Regulation & abolition) act, 1970


  • Regulating the employment of contract labor in certain establishments
  • Abolition of contract labor under certain circumstances

Applicable to:

  • Establishments with 20+ workmen

Not applicable to:

  • Establishments with casual or intermittent nature of work


  • Constitution of central advisory board
    • Chairman, chief labor commissioner & members (total 11 to 17)
  • Registration of establishments
  • Licensing of contractors
  • Welfare and health of contract labor
    • Rest rooms, water+sanitation, first aid box, washing fecilities
  • Responsibility for payment of wages
demolition of buildings
Demolition of buildings

Partial Demolition

Partial deterioration of structure

Additions, alterations and improvements

Natural calamities such as storm, fire, floods, earth quake, land slide etc.

2. Complete demolition

The maintenance of repair becomes uneconomical

To provide space for new projects

Completely unserviceable due to natural calamities

  • Why building Demolition?
    • Expiry of useful life
    • Uneconomical maintenance
    • Buildings built illegally

Demolition is a process in which an existing building or any such structure is pulled down using some machines, tools and equipments

demolition of buildings1
Demolition of buildings

Demolition methods can vary depending on

  • The area where it will be held on
  • The building material
  • The purpose of the demolition and
  • The way that debris is going to be disposed

Demolition Methods

  • Demolition by hand tools
  • High Reach Arm and or Pusher arm
  • Crane & Ball
  • Implosion or Explosion
  • Selective Demolition
safety measures for demolition
Safety measures for Demolition

On every demolition work, danger signs should be provided and barricaded around the area

During night time, red lights should be placed

Every workmen engaged in demolition work should wear PPE

The process of demolition may weaken the side walls of adjoining structure and to prevent possible damage, these walls should be supported

The power on all electrical service lines, gas lines must be shut off before the demolition work is started

No demolition work should be carried out at night

assignment 4
  • List types of contracts and discuss in detail about “cost plus fixed fee contract”
  • Describe important conditions of contract
  • Explain the importance of safety in construction industry
  • Write a short note on
    • “workmen compensation act”
    • Safety measures for Building demolition