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The Constitution of the United States

The Constitution of the United States

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The Constitution of the United States

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  1. The Constitution of the United States Lesson 3, Chapter 6

  2. Motivation • The framework for our government is over 200 years old. • Today, you’ll learn about the Constitution of the United States. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  3. Lesson overview • Why is the Constitution of the United States a remarkable document? • What is the Preamble to the Constitution? • What are the articles of the Constitution? Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  4. Lesson overview (cont’d) • What is the role of the legislative branch of government? • What is the role of the executive branch of government? • What is the role of the judicial branch of government? • What is the subject of Article IV of the Constitution? Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  5. Lesson overview (cont’d) • What is the subject of Article V of the Constitution? • What is the subject of Article VI of the Constitution? • What is the subject of Article VII of the Constitution? • What are the amendments to the Constitution? Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  6. Lesson overview (cont’d) • What are the three parts of the Constitution? • How do the articles of the Constitution compare to the Articles of Confederation? • How is the Constitution amended? • How is the Constitution interpreted? Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  7. Quick Write How do you think the Constitution of the United States protects your rights and freedom as an American citizen? Write down five ways the Constitution protects you. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  8. Why is the Constitution of the United States a remarkable document? • One of the first written constitutions in modern history • Strong central government • Preserved ideals of the Declaration of Independence Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  9. Why is the Constitution of the United States a remarkable document? (cont’d) • Created three branches of government and a process for adding amendments • Has guided nation’s political leaders for over 200 years • Symbol of pride and national unity Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  10. What is the Preamble to the Constitution? • The Preamble • Introduces the Constitution • States reasons why the government was established • Declares that the power of the government comes from the people Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  11. What are the articles of the Constitution? • The Constitution contains seven divisions called articles. • Each article covers a general topic. • Article I creates the legislative branch. • Article II creates the executive branch. • Article III creates the judiciary branch. • Most articles are divided into sections. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  12. What is the role of the legislative branch of government? • The legislative branch of government was created by Article I. • Topics of Article I include • Representation • Electing senators • Impeachment Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  13. What is the role of the legislative branch of government? (cont’d) • Impeach—to accuse government officials of wrongdoing, put them on trial, and, if necessary, remove them from office • Senate has sole power to try impeachments. • Two-thirds must vote for conviction. • Conviction results in removal from office. • Person cannot hold another U.S. government office. • If convicted, person can be held liable under law. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  14. What is the role of the legislative branch of government? (cont’d) • Congressional salaries • Where tax laws begin • How bills become laws • Powers of Congress • Elastic clause • Habeas corpus • Limitations on states Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  15. What is the role of the executive branch of government? • The executive branch of government was created by Article II. • Topics of Article II include • Change of method for electing a president • Qualifications for office Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  16. What is the role of the executive branch of government? (cont’d) • Vacancies—procedures for presidential succession • Salary • Cabinet • Presidential powers Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  17. What is the role of the judicial branch of government? • Judicial refers to courts. • The judicial branch of government was created by Article III. • Topics of Article III include • Setting up the Supreme Court • Providing for other federal courts Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  18. What is the role of the judicial branch of government? (cont’d) • Judiciary has two different systems of courts. • Federal courts: Powers derive from U.S. Constitution and federal laws. • State courts: Powers derive from state constitutions and laws. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  19. What is the subject of Article IV of the Constitution? • Topic of Article IV is relations among the states. • Relationship of states to one another and to national government • Admission of new states • Guarantee that national government will protect states Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  20. What is the subject of Article IV of the Constitution? (cont’d) • Aristotle defined government by asking“Who governs?” • Autocracy—ruled by one person • Oligarchy—ruled by a few • Democracy—ruled by many • Republic—a form of democracy • Elected representatives make laws and conduct government. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  21. What is the subject of Article V of the Constitution? • Topic of Article V is the amendment process. • How the Constitution can be amended, or changed • All 27 amendments were proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  22. What is the subject of Article VI of the Constitution? • Topic of Article VI is national supremacy. • Supremacy clause establishes that the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and treaties of the U.S. will be the “supreme Lawof the Land.” • Constitution and federal laws prevail when in conflict with state laws. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  23. What is the subject of Article VII of the Constitution? • Topic of Article VII is the ratification of the Constitution. • The Constitution would take effect after it was ratified by nine states. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  24. What are the amendments to the Constitution? • The Bill of Rights consists of the first ten amendments to the Constitution. • Limits the powers of government • Protects civil liberties of individuals • Limits freedoms by consideration of other individuals’ rights Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  25. What are the amendments to the Constitution? (cont’d) • Amendment V—Rights of the accused • Protections for people accused of crimes • Due process of law • Government must follow constitutional procedures in trials and other actions against individuals. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  26. What are the amendments to the Constitution? (cont’d) • Amendment VI—Right to a speedy, fair trial • Jury must hear witnesses and evidence on both sides before deciding guilt or innocence of person charged with crime. • Legal counsel must be provided to defendant. • If defendant cannot afford lawyer, one must be provided by the government. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  27. What are the amendments to the Constitution? (cont’d) • Amendment XII—Elections • Corrects problem in method of electing president and vice president • Provides for the Electoral College to use separate ballots in voting for president and vice president Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  28. What are the amendments to the Constitution? (cont’d) • Civil War Amendments • Amendments XIII, XIV, and XV • Amendment XIII—Abolition of slavery • Amendment XIV—Rights of citizens • Originally, intended to protect rights of freed slaves • Today, protects rights of all citizens Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  29. What are the amendments to the Constitution? (cont’d) • Amendment XV—Right to vote • Amendment prohibits government from denying right to vote based on race. • Despite law, many states denied African Americans right to vote. • Stronger laws were later passed to end racial discrimination in voting rights. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  30. What are the amendments to the Constitution? (cont’d) • Amendment XVIII—Prohibition • Prohibited production, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States • Was difficult to enforce • Was later repealed by Amendment XXI, the only amendment ever passed to overturn an earlier amendment Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  31. What are the amendments to the Constitution? (cont’d) • Amendment XIX—Woman suffrage • Guaranteed women the right to vote • Some women had already won right to vote in state elections. • Amendment made their right to vote in state and national elections Constitutional. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  32. What are the amendments to the Constitution? (cont’d) • Amendment XXIV—Abolition of poll tax • Added in 1964 • Prohibits poll taxes in federal elections • Before this, some states had used such taxes to keep low-income African Americans from voting. • In 1966, the Supreme Court banned poll taxes in state elections as well. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  33. What are the amendments to the Constitution? (cont’d) • Amendment XXV—The vice president • Established process for vice president to take over leadership when president dies, resigns, or is removed from office. • Set procedures for filling a vacancy in the office of vice president • Was used in 1973, when Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned from office Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  34. What are the three parts of the Constitution? • U.S. Constitution has three main parts: • Preamble: opening section • Articles (7): describe structure of government • Amendments (27): additions and changes Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  35. What are the three parts of the Constitution? (cont’d) • Preamble—introduction that states the goals and purposes of the government • Tells why the Constitution was written • Consists of a single, concise sentence • States that the power of the government comes from the people Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  36. What are the three parts of the Constitution? (cont’d) • Middle of Preamble: six purposes of government • “To form a more perfect Union” • “To establish Justice” • “To insure domestic Tranquility” • “To provide for the common defense” • “To promote the general Welfare” • “To secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity” Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  37. What are the three parts of the Constitution? (cont’d) • After Preamble, seven articles explain how government is to work. • Articles I, II, and III—powers and responsibilities of each branch of government Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  38. What are the three parts of the Constitution? (cont’d) • Legislative branch of government • Two houses with all lawmaking authority • Rules for how members of each house are chosen • Rules Congress must follow to make laws • Powers Congress does and does not have Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  39. What are the three parts of the Constitution? (cont’d) • Executive branch of government • Headed by a president and vice president • How they are to be elected • How they can be removed from office • Presidential powers and duties Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  40. What are the three parts of the Constitution? (cont’d) • Judicial branch of government • Interprets laws • Ensures that laws are fairly applied • Calls for creation of Supreme Court and lower courts • Lists powers of federal courts • Describes kinds of cases they may hear Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  41. What are the three parts of the Constitution? (cont’d) • Article IV—Relations among the states • Article V—How Constitution can be amended • Article VI—Constitution as the “supreme Law of the Land” • Article VII—Constitution would take effect after ratified by nine states Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  42. How do the articles of the Constitution compare to the Articles of Confederation? • Constitution: legislative branch • Two houses of Congress • Equal representation of states in Senate • Representation according to population in House of Representatives • Articles of Confederation: legislative branch • One house of Congress • Equal representation of 13 states Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  43. How do the articles of the Constitution compare to the Articles of Confederation? (cont’d) • Constitution: executive branch • President chosen by electors • Has power to enforce laws, make treaties, command Armed Forces • Articles of Confederation: no executive branch Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  44. How do the articles of the Constitution compare to the Articles of Confederation? (cont’d) • Constitution: judicial branch • Supreme Court and lower federal courts • Have power to interpret laws • Settle disputes between states • Articles of Confederation: no judicial branch Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  45. How is the Constitution amended? • Step 1: Proposal • By Congressional action • Vote of two-thirds of members of both housesof Congress • By national convention • As requested by two-thirds of the 50 state legislatures Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  46. How is the Constitution amended? (cont’d) • Step 2: Ratification • Three-fourths of the 50 states must ratify. • Two ways to do this • By vote of state legislature • By special state convention Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  47. How is the Constitution interpreted? • Changes take place to Constitution through interpretation. • Methods of interpretation • Necessary and proper clause • Court decisions • Congressional and presidential actions • Custom Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  48. Lesson review • The U.S. Constitution is one of the first written constitutions in modern history. • It is a flexible and strong document that has guided this nation’s leaders for over 200 years. • The three parts of the Constitution are the Preamble, the 7 articles, and the 27 amendments. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  49. Lesson review (cont’d) • The Preamble introduces the Constitution, tells why it was written, and states that the power of government comes from the people. • The seven articles explain how the national government is to work. • The first three articles describe each branch of government; the other four articles address more general matters. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States

  50. Lesson review (cont’d) • Article I gives the legislative branch (Congress) all lawmaking authority. • Article I also specifies Congress’s powers, which include collecting taxes, regulating foreign and interstate trade, coining money, and declaring war. Lesson 3, Chapter 6, The Constitution of the United States