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BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM. Dr. Michael C. Potter Paul VI Catholic High School Fairfax, Virginia. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM. ENERGY: Ability to do work States of Energy Potential Kinetic Forms of Energy Mechanical Heat Atomic, etc. BIO 101, 102

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BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM


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    1. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Dr. Michael C. Potter Paul VI Catholic High School Fairfax, Virginia

    2. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ENERGY: Ability to do work States of Energy Potential Kinetic Forms of Energy Mechanical Heat Atomic, etc.

    3. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Potential Energy Kinetic Energy

    4. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY Calorie: Amount of heat needed to raise 1.0 Gm. H2O 1.0 Co Kcal (kilocalorie) Joule: SI unit of work (energy) Energy needed to raise 1.0 Kg. 1.0 meter 1.0 Kcal. = 4.184 kilojoules

    5. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ALL Energy obtained from Sun 13X1023 calories per year…or 40 million billion calories/sec. Sun energy stored as potential energy in chemical cmpds.

    6. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Oxidation Reduction Reactions

    7. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM OXIDATION/REDUCTION REACTION OXIDATION: Molecule LOSES electron REDUCTION: Molecule GAINS electron REDOX REACTIONS i.e. “coupled” reactions

    8. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM OXIDIZING AGENT: Causes oxidation in molecule therefore is reduced REDUCING AGENT Causes reduction in molecule therefore is oxidized “LEO the lion says GER!”

    9. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    10. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Energy can neither be made nor destroyed; only changed from one form to another The TOTAL AMOUNT of energy in the universe remains constant

    11. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS ENTROPY is increasing, i.e. disorder is more likely than order Entropy is the measure of disorder in a system

    12. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Second Law of Thermodynamics

    13. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM FREE ENERGY: That energy in a system that is available to do work Free Energy equals ENTHALPY minus ENTROPY times Ko

    14. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Josiah Willard Gibbs Professor of Mathematics Yale University

    15. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM GIBBS FREE ENERGY: Josiah Willard Gibbs ΔG = CHANGE in Free Energy Negative value - exothermic Positive value – endothermic ACTIVATION ENERGY: Energy required to initiate a chemical reaction

    16. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM CATALYSTS: Lower Activation nrg. ENZYMES: Protein catalysts Mechanisms of Action (4) Factors Affecting Activity: Inhibition Competitive Inhibition Non-Competitive Inhibition

    17. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    18. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    19. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ENZYMES: Factors Affecting Activity: Activation “Activators” Maintain “active configuration”

    20. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ENZYME COFACTORS: Usually inorganic substances e.g. ions COENZYMES: Nonprotein organic molecules (vitamins) NADH (reduced form) FADH2 (reduced form)

    21. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Biological Redox Often a PAIR of H atoms are removed, & one proton and 2 electrons are then transferred to NAD+

    22. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    23. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM COENZYME NADH

    24. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) Nucleotide consisting of: Ribose Adenine (N-containing base) Three PO4 groups Transient Existence (Use it or lose it)

    25. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Adenine Ribose Phosphate groups

    26. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Energy (Potential) stored in bond Yields 7.3 kcal/mol when ATPADP Provides energy for most endergonic reactions Coupled Reactions

    27. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM EVOLUTION OF METABOLISM 1. Degradation 2. Glycolysis 3. Anaerobic Photosynthesis 4. Nitrogen Fixation 5. O2 Forming Photosynthesis 6. Aerobic Respiration

    28. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM • GLUCOSE CATABOLISM • STAGE I: GLYCOLYSIS • STAGE II: PYRUVATE OXIDATION • STAGE III: KREBS CYCLE • STAGE IV: ELECTRON TRANSPORT

    29. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    30. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    31. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    32. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    33. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM • GLYCOLYSIS: A process that occurs • in the cytoplasm of every living cell • 1. Glucose Priming: This changes • glucose into a molecule that can be • “cleaved”. • Requires 2 molecules of ATP • Phosphofructokinase: commits • glucose to glycolysis

    34. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    35. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM • GLYCOLYSIS: • 2. Splitting & Rearrangement: • Six carbon compound splits • to (2) 3 carbon cmpds. • Fructose 1,6, Diphosphate into • (2) Glyceraldehyde 3 PO4 • “Substrate Level Phosphorylation” • Making ATP (4 molecules/glucose)

    36. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    37. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM GLYCOLYSIS: 3. Oxidation: Removal of electrons (energy) & capturing in NADH from NAD+. 4. ATP Generation: 4 reactions that convert G-3-PO4 to Pyruvate Generates 2 ATP per Pyruvate

    38. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    39. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM GLYCOLYSIS RESULTS IN: Glucose → 2 molecules Pyruvate 2 molecules ADP → ATP for each molecule of pyruvate 2 molecules NAD+ → NADH from oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-PO4

    40. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM B. Oxidation of Pyruvate:Occurs in mitochondrion 1. Aerobic conditions Pyruvate OXIDIZED to Acetyl CoA 2. Anaerobic conditions result in FERMENTATION REACTIONS

    41. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Metabolism of Pyruvate

    42. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    43. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    44. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM FERMENTATION REACTIONS: 1.Lactic Acid Fermentation: Pyruvate REDUCED to Lactate No CO2 removal NADH → NAD+ 2. Alcohol Fermentation: Fungal (Yeast) Cells Pyruvate REDUCED to Alcohol CO2 Removed; NADH → NAD+

    45. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Cytosol

    46. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    47. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    48. BIO 101. 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM C. KREBS CYCLE: 1. “Priming” Reactions Prepares the molecule for energy extraction Acetyl CoA (2C) joins oxaloacetate (4C) to form Citrate (6C) Citrate isomerizes to Isocitrate

    49. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

    50. BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM C. KREBS CYCLE: 2. “Energy Extraction”- oxidation reactions disassembling the molecule Decarboxylation Reactions Reduction NAD+→ NADH Reduction FAD+→ FADH2 Regeneration oxaloacetate