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PARENT PROGRAMS By Lynette Okeng’o , PhD. Presentation Outline. Definition Rationale for parent programs Factors that affect parenting Parent support programs Planning for effective programming Elements of effective parenting programs. Definition.

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Presentation Transcript
presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Definition
  • Rationale for parent programs
  • Factors that affect parenting
  • Parent support programs
  • Planning for effective programming
  • Elements of effective parenting programs
definition
Definition

Parenting is the nurturing of children through ongoing care and support that enables them to survive and thrive.

Parenting is a process

Parenting is multi-dimensional

Parenting is an investment

why focus on parenting
Why Focus on Parenting?

Scientific evidence shows that parenting plays a key role in:

  • Improved cognitive and language development (reading, academic achievement)
    • In 2 parent families 50% of children with highly involved fathers get A’s vs. 30% of low father involvement children (Hofferth, 2003)
    • Parents’ use of harsh punishment was negatively associated with scholastic achievement grades (Amato & Fowler 2002)
  • Improved child survival (low birth weight, IMR, U5MR).
  • Parent education programs strengthen the capacity of parents to better care for new born children, meet nutritional needs, respond appropriately in the care of sick children, prevent accidents, adhere to immunization schedules etc,
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Social and emotional development (gender socialization, peer relationships, drug & alcohol abuse, juvenile crime)
    • Parents’ use of harsh punishment was positively associated behavior problems (Amato & Fowler, 2002).
    • Problem drinking in adolescence is related to parental modeling, parental reward structures and the quality of family affectional interaction (Shedler J & Block J. 1990)
    • Parental monitoring and positive relations were found to be protective factors for disruptive behavior and the selection of substance-using friends (Cohen et al, 1994)
    • Higher levels of parental warmth were associated with lower levels of initial gang involvement for adolescents (Walker-Barnes & Mason, 2001)
why focus on parenting1
Why Focus on Parenting?
  • The child should grow up in a family environment, within an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality (CRC-Preamble)
  • All children have a right to parental love and care (Article 3,5, 9, 10, 18, 20 & 21)
  • States have an obligation to render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities ….(Article 18)
  • This education should include basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the advantage of breastfeeding, hygiene, environmental sanitation, prevention of accidents and guidance on family planning (Article 24)
parenting as a right
Parenting as a Right
  • Parenting is not a favour it implies a correlative duty or obligation
  • It is universal not specific to certain groups
  • It requires attention to both outcome and process
  • Parenting is indivisible
factors that affect parenting
Factors that Affect Parenting
  • Culture
  • Parental experiences and characteristics
  • Family structures and dynamics
  • Child factors
  • Economic and political factors

Parents often want to do their best but require education and support to provide an environment that will maximize their children’s potential

types of parenting programs
Types of parenting programs
  • Parent education that targets specific child outcomes
  • Parent intervention programs for high risk families
  • Parent support programs that seek to empower parents to positively impact their children’s development
  • Parent involvement programs

Effective programs seek to educate and support parents in providing strong foundations for children

situation analysis
Situation Analysis
  • Important step that enhances effectiveness, relevance and sustainability of planned program
  • It seeks to answer the following questions
    • What is the situation of children (is there a problem)
    • What is contributing to the situation
    • What are the existing child rearing practices (positive, negative and gaps)
    • Who is key in solving the problem and what are their capacity gaps
    • What are other partners doing
  • This process is only complete after validation and consensus building
program design
Program design
  • Based on the situation analysis and includes:
    • Program vision, mission, goals and objectives
    • Target group, program activities and work plan
    • Clear co-ordination and accountability structure
    • Resource mobilization and allocation
    • Quality assurance system
    • Monitoring and evaluation plan and tools
  • It is critical that alliances are built with different stakeholders with strong community engagement
program design planning program activities
Program Design: Planning program activities
  • The following decisions have to be made:
    • Content (health, nutrition, early stimulation, social and emotional development, materials development, income generation, financial management, family life)
    • Curriculum (existing, adapted, creation of contextualized curriculum)
    • Capacity building for trainers of facilitators
    • Delivery mode (home visits, centre based, parent groups/ networks, media)
    • Duration and timings
    • Partnership with other service providers
implementation m e
Implementation, M&E

For effective implementation, M&E ensure:

  • Community mobilization, sensitization and engagement
  • Free flow of information with the purpose of strengthening the program
  • Teamwork among all players
  • Flexibility to ensure objectives are met

M&E information should then be used to improve future planning

elements of effective parent programs
Elements of effective parent programs
  • Respect parents/caregivers and believe that parents want to do the best possible for their children
  • Build on existing positive practices and structures
  • Focus on systems affecting parents and children (ecological)
  • Tap into the benefits of collaborations
  • Skilled, sensitive and emotionally balanced staff
  • Intervene at critical points
  • Long-term and sustainable
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The parents exist to teach the child, but also they must learn what the child has to teach them; and the child has a very great deal to teach them.- Arnold Bennett-