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Getting it all together: Paradigms for AGNs. Martin Elvis Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. R. Somerville: OIR lunch talk, 3/29/05. AGN as a panacea?. overcooling problem/LF shape galaxy red sequence & bimodality decline of bright QSO’s M BH - s relation

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getting it all together paradigms for agns
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Getting it all together:Paradigms for AGNs

Martin Elvis

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

agn as a panacea
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

R. Somerville: OIR lunch talk, 3/29/05

AGN as a panacea?
  • overcooling problem/LF shape
  • galaxy red sequence & bimodality
  • decline of bright QSO’s
  • MBH-s relation
  • QSO and galaxy ‘downsizing’
  • cluster cooling flow problem/entropy floor
two paradigms for agns 1 obscuring donut tori 2 accretion disk winds
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Two Paradigms for AGNs: 1. Obscuring Donut Tori 2. Accretion Disk Winds

Bagel

Paradigms give context to observationsOnly useful when they make predictions

winds and tori affect feedback
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Murray, Chiang, Grossman & Voit 1995

20%

Winds and Tori affect Feedback
  • Winds:
    • Location: mass, KE, mv, Z rates
    • Geometry: fc, vescape, escape route
  • Torus:

blocks 80% feedback to ISM

ngc1365 rapid compton thick thin transitions
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

NGC 1365

Compton thin

Constant extended component

XMM ct cm-2 s-1

Compton thick

0.1

1

E (keV)

10

Hardness Ratio

0

20

40

60

t (ksec)

NGC1365: Rapid Compton-thick/-thin transitions

Risaliti et al. 2005 ApJ 623, L93

  • DNH~1024cm-2 in 3 weeks
  • DNH~1023cm-2 in 6 hours
rapid n h variability small obscurer size
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Mol. Torus

radius/rg

NGC4151, NGC4388, NGC1365

BELR

density

Rapid NH Variability  Small Obscurer Size
  • 3 cases:
    • NGC1365, Risaliti et al. 2005
    • NGC4388, Elvis et al. 2004
    • NGC4151, Puccetti et al. 2006
  • Hard for dusty absorber on parsec-scale
  • Assume Keplerian motion of obscuring matter

R < 104 r102 t42 Rs

(t4 in 4-hours, r in cm-3)

  • BELR scale
is the inner torus the disk wind
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Is the Inner Torus the Disk Wind?
  • Eases torus physics:
    • Wind is steady state, but not static
    • No problem supporting obscuring structure
    • Large covering factor easy to create
    • oversupply of BEL clouds?
    • Hydromagnetic wind?
    • Low dust-to-gas ratio natural
      • If disk from ISM, not disrupted stars
  • Aids Feedback:
    • Radiation still blocked
    • Matter escapes
      • Host ISM can be affected

Kartje, Königl & Elitzur, 1999 ApJ 513, 180

standard torus 2 more issues
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Netzer 1987 MNRAS 225, 55

UV from disk

isotropicX-ray

Typical em. Line cloud

Typical observer

Standard Torus: 2 more Issues
  • Disk - torus co-aligned
  • Equatorial wind can’t escape
  • Can’t see accretion disk edge-on
    • Difficult for BEL polarization PA rotation - all type 1 AGNs are ~pole-on
    • Viewing angle Netzer et al.1985, ApJ 292, 143can’t be used to explain

‘continuum energy deficit’ and

‘ionizing photon deficit’Binette et al. 1993 PASP 105, 1150

obscurer is aligned with host disk
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Show up as IRAS AGNs

Host galaxy Axial ratio

Obscurer is Aligned with Host Disk

Lawrence & Elvis 1982 ApJ,

Kirhakos & Steiner 1990, AJ 99 1722

Thompson & Martin 1988 ApJ 330, 121

PA(polarization) - PA(host disk)

Host galaxy Axial ratio

The missing edge-on type 1 AGNs

Strong continuum polarization

accretion disk misaligned with host disk
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Accretion Disk misaligned with Host disk

Ulvestad & Wilson 1984 ApJ 285, 439

DPA host - kpc radio

misaligned obscurer accretion disk
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Host Galaxy Disk

Misaligned Obscurer & Accretion Disk
  • Unobscured lines of sight sample all disk inclinations
  • Netzer deficit can be solved
  • AGN continuum reaches host ISM
    • = torus
  • Host ISM may be blown away,
  • but not instantly, else no obscuration will be seen
2 testing the accretion disk wind paradigm
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 20062. Testing the Accretion Disk Wind Paradigm

Mass loss rate in wind unknown to 106:NELR - accretion disk

time evolving photoionization measures r
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Time Evolving Photoionization measures R

Response is not instantaneous:

‘Ionization time’ and ‘Recombination time’

measure ne independent of Ux and so measures R

Nicastro et al. (1999)

Step function change

Gradual WA response

warm absorber variability gives physics
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Warm Absorber Variability gives physics

See: Mathur, Elvis & Wilkes 1995 ApJ 452, 230.

Nicastro, Fiore, Perola & Elvis 1999, ApJ 512, 184

Fully characterized plasma:

  • Densityne: recombination/ionization time lag to cont. changes
  • Radial Distance, r: ne, ionization parameter (nph /ne), Lcont
  • WA thickness, dr: NH, ne
  • WA temperature, T: amplitude of response to cont. changes.
  • Pressure,P:ne, T
  • Mass outflow rate,mdot:ne, velocity v
slide19
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

~30 ksec

NGC4051: Rapid Variability in XMM

High State HS

Low State LS

XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) HS and LS spectra…

ngc4051 rgs strong wa spectral changes
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006NGC4051 RGS: strong WA spectral changes

4X flux increase

in ~30 ksec

 WA is DENSE and COMPACT

comparing rgs epic spectral changes
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Comparing RGS & EPIC spectral changes

4X flux increase

RGS Data

EPIC Data

Fe L shell

UTA

First noted by Ogle et al. 2004

ngc 4051 two warm absorber components in photoionization equilibrium
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

XMM EPIC Light Curve

NGC 4051:Two Warm Absorber Components in Photoionization Equilibrium

High Ionization phase

log Ux(t), measured

Low Ionization phase

log Ux(t), predicted

from photoionization

equilibrium

Krongold et al., 2005, ApJ, submitted

lower limit on lip n e and hence r
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Lower limit on LIP ne and hence R
  • Low Ionization Phase, LIP in photoionizatin equilibrium at all times

 teq(LIP) < tl,m = 3 ks

 ne(LIP) > 8.1 107 cm-3

But (neR2)LIP = 6.6 1039 cm-1

 R(LIP) < 8.9 x 1015 cm < 0.0029 pc

< 3.5 light days

Hard to get with partial covering:

X-ray source is small

measurement of hip n e and hence r
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Measurement of HIP ne and hence R
  • At extremes (high and low) HIP is out of photoionization equilibrium teqi,j+k(HIP) > tj+k = 10 ks
  • HIP is in eq. at moderate fluxes

 teql,m(HIP) < tl,m = 3 ks

 ne(HIP)=(0.6-2.1)x 107 cm-3

 R(HIP) = (1.3- 2.6)x 1015 cm = (0.5-1.0) light days

ngc4051 warm absorber is radially thin
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006NGC4051 Warm Absorber is Radially Thin
  • From the independent measure of NH(HIP)3.2x1021cm-2

R = 1.23 NH/ne

R(LIP) < 9x1012 cm

R(HIP) = (1.9-7.2)x1014 cm

  • (R/R)HIP = 0.1-0.2; (R/R)LIP < 10-3
    • From the estimates of ne and (neR2):

(R/R) = 1.23 NH ne-1/2 (neR2)-1/2

 (R/R)LIP = 1 % (R/R)HIP

 eitherthe LIP is embedded in the HIP- pressure balance

    • orthe LIP is a boundary layer of the HIP
scale map of an agn outer
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Scale Map of an AGN: outer

Dust sublimation radius

~HeII BELR

Hb BELR

Dusty molecular torus

  • RHIP ~ 0.5-1.0 light-day = (1.3-2.6) x 1015 cm
  • RLIP < 3.5 light-day: consistent
  • Rules out Narrow Emission Line Region(kpc scale)
  • Rules out Obscuring molecular torus (Krolik & Kriss, 2001)
      • Minimum dust radius, rsubl(NGC4051) ~ 12-170 light-days
  • Rules out Hb broad emission line region (BELR)
    • R(Hb) = 5.9 light-days (Peterson et al. 2000)

LIP

HIP

light-days

5

10

15

scale map of an agn inner
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

NGC4151 D+Ea CIII] abs.

HIP

gravitationally unstable

HeII BEL

rg

1000

2000

3000

5000

4000

Scale Map of an AGN: inner
  • RHIP ~ 0.5-1 light-day ~2200 - 4400 Rg
    • Mbh=1.9+/-0.78 x 106 Msol (Peterson et al. 2004) *face-on?

 Disk winds arise on accretion disk scale

  • Consistent with high-ionization BEL size
    • R(HeII) ~< 2 light days. HeII blueshift ~400km/s = wind signature?
  • Thin: DR = 10% - 20% R
wa radial velocity escape velocity
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006WA radial velocity < escape velocity!

Strong UV Evidence for Transverse winds

Departures from 2:1 ratio give covering factor

CIV doublet 2:1 ratio

Arav, Korista & de Kool 2002, ApJ 566, 699

Arav, Korista, de Kool, Junkkarinen & Begelman 1999 ApJ 516, 27

agn cosmological feedback
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006AGN Cosmological Feedback
  • Location determines mass loss rate

Mdotout= 0.8pmpNH vr R f(q,j)

= 2-5% mdot(acc)

  • lower than 10% normally assumed
  • Total WA mass deposited in Intergalactic Medium:
    • If: lifetime =108yr Mtot(out)=(0.4-2)x104Msol in NGC4051
    • Mdot(out)  M(BH) for constant Rg
    • Quasar MBH = 108-109Msol

 Mtot(quasar) = 106-107 Msol

  • comparable with ULIRGs

Krongold et al. 2006 ApJ, submitted

confirms major features of elvis funnel wind
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Conical geometry

Confirms Major Features of Elvis ‘funnel wind’

Elvis 2000 ApJ 545, 63; 2003 astro-ph/0311436

Thin

Wind

Pressure balance

Becoming a secure basis for physical wind models: will allow extrapolation

slide31
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Funnel Disk Wind Model Predictions

Elvis 2000 ApJ 545, 63; 2003 astro-ph/0311436

  • X-ray ‘Warm Absorbers’
    • 0. WA AGN is non-spherical
    • 1. Same gas as UV NALs
    • 2. Outflows
    • 3. Narrow lines
    • 4. Ionization consistent with NALs
    • 5. Few (2-3) phases of (T, P)
    • 6. Pressure balance between phases
  • Broad Emission Line Region (BELR)
    • 7. Rotating, large scale height
  • Broad Absorption Line Region (BALR)
    • 8. Scattering in normal quasars -
      • BELs, continuum, Fe-K
    • 9. Rotating
  • UV Narrow Absorption Lines (NALs)
    • 10. Common in high L quasars too
    • 11. Dv ~ 1/2 vdetach(BAL)
    • 12. Close to continuum source
caveats to mass loss rates
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Caveats to Mass Loss Rates
  • Only one object
    • ‘Narrow Line Seyfert 1’
      • Unusually distant BELR ~10xRg(normal)  higher Mdotout
      • Unusally weak wind?(= eigenvector 1?)
      • Low Mbh1.9 x 106 Msollow Mdotout?
      • Mdotout Scales with BH mass if at constant Rg
        • Mdotout = 0.8 p mp NH vrR f(j,q) = A Mbh
  • ‘Very High Ionization’ (Fe-K) absorber?  Larger Mdot
  • Partial covering? Nahum
  • Steady state winds not the whole story?
    • Cen A ring
slide33
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

1. massive black hole 

Proposed: Lynden-Bell 1969

Demonstrated in AGN: Wandel & Peterson

Questions: Origin, co-evolution,

spin, Penrose process; GR tests

Quasar Physics: The Big Questions

2. accretion disk ?

Proposed: Lynden-Bell 1969, Pringle & Rees 1972, Shakura & Sunyaev 1972

Demonstrated?: Shields78, Malkan82, Eracleous?

Questions: proof. Viscosity=(MRI?), ang.mom,RIAF

3. relativistic jet 

Proposed: Rees 1967 [PhD], Blandford & Rees 1974

Demonstrated: Cohen et al. (VLBI)

Questions: acceleration mechanism (Penrose/Blandford-Znajek?)

5. Obscuring torus

Proposed: Lawrence & Elvis 1982

Demonstrated: Antonucci & Miller 1985

Questions: Bagel, Disk and/or host

4. Disk wind atmosphereBELR, WA,BALs, NELR

Proposed: many times (from Mushotzky et al.1972 on)

Demonstrated: Krongold et al. 2006 - NGC4051

Questions: acceleration mechanism; M/Medd, eigenvector 1, impact on environment

agn winds tori paradigm shifts
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006AGN Winds & Tori: Paradigm Shifts
  • Accretion Disk Winds 
  • RULES OUT: NELR, torus, continuous
  • R = few 1000 Rs = HiBEL region?
  • Thin: DR/R = 10%-20%
  • Pressure balance
  • Conical flows/funnel-shaped
  • BAL-like NH down cone Elvis 2000
  • Feedback: Mass, KE, Z flux are smal
    • lstill a lot of extrapolation involved
  • AGN Winds are not a panacea
  • Bagel Tori: 
  • Need 2 types of torus
  • Large (kpc), host oriented
  • Torus is host ISM
    • Random alignments allow radiation to impact host ISM
  • Small (104 Rg) disk oriented
    • Wind can affect host ISM,
    • but not radiation

AGN structure details matter

to cosmology…

and can be solved

imaging quasars
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Sizes are implicit in:

Peterson et al. 1999 ApJL 520, 659.

Kaspi et al. 2001 ApJ 533, 631

Imaging Quasars

What we really want is to look at quasar atmospheres

Low z BELR sizes are~0.1mas

Elvis & Karovska, 2002 ApJ

  • Resolvable with planned ground interferometers
    • VLT-I, Ohana
  • Ideal telescopes:
  • Image the wind in space and velocity
  • 5 km-10 km IR 2mm interferometer at ‘Dome C’ in Antartica
  • 0.5-1km UV space interferometer
  • = NASA ‘Stellar Imager’
  • Quasar community should hi-jack SI!

SOLVE QUASAR ATMOSPHERES

No more fancy indirect deductions!

slide36
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

3 Ways to Accelerate Quasar Winds

  • Thermal Pressure Driven
  • As in Supernovae
  • (but continuous)
  • Vmax ~ Vsound ~ 100km/s
  • Isotropic pressure
    • ~100% filling factor
  • Krolik & Kriss 1995; Balsara & Krolik 1993; Begelman, deKool & Sikora 1991CR acceleration

Radiation Line Driven

As in O-stars

Vmax ~ 2x VKepler ~ 10000km/s

Radial pressure (at large R)

Force is highly ionization dependent

Mushotzky, Solomon & Strittmatter 1972 BALs; Wolfe 1974 BELR; deKool & Begelman 1995; Murray, Chiang, Grossman & Voit, 1995 BALs; Murray & Chiang 1995 Warm Absorbers; Chiang & Murray 1996 BELR; Proga , Stone & Drew 1999 CVs; Proga 2000; Proga 2003 BELR; Chelouche & Netzer

Magnetic ‘slingshot’

As in T Tauri stars

Vmax ~ c

Flows along field lines

Uses scary B fields

Blandford & Payne 1982; Emmering, Blandford & Shlosman 1992; Königl & Kartje 1994; Bottorf et al. 1997; Everett, Königl, Kartje 2001; Proga 2000; Proga 2003

agn as dust factories
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Cooling BEL clouds

Cooling BEL clouds

Oxygen rich dust

Carbon rich dust

NGC1068 11.7mm. Tomono 2001

AGN as Dust Factories

Elvis, Marengo & Karovska, 2002 ApJ, 567, L107

  • BEL gas expands in an outflowing wind from high densities
  • Cools to <1000 K while still at high pressure
  • BEL adiabats track through dust formation zone of AGB stars
    • Applies to Carbon-rich and Oxygen-rich grains
  • BELR wind must make dust
    • Central continuum less important than for AGB star dust
  • NGC1068 11.7mm dust emission follows ENELR Galliano et al. 2003
  • Is this BELR created dust?
  • What are the signatures of BEL-origin vs ISM-origin dust?
centaurus a ngc5128 smoke ring m karovska et al 2002
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

20 ks Chandra HRC (blue)

HI Contours

Centaurus A (NGC5128) ‘Smoke Ring’M. Karovska et al 2002

Smoke Ring: R ~ 8 kpc; kT~0.6 keV

LX~ 4 x 1038 erg/s

Eth ~1.2 x 1055ergs

~100 Etot(wind) in NGC4051

Mgas ~ 106 Msol Includes swept up ISM

  • v~600 km/s;
  • t(outburst) 107 yrs
  • Impulsive injection? Merger ~ 107 yr
  • Only visible in Cen A (D=3 Mpc)
cylindrical conical geometry
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

dr=vdt

R()

R()

r

q

Cylindrical/Conical Geometry
  • NGC4051 Wind is Thin: spherical shells are implausible

needs impulsive ejection; inconsistent with 50% of AGN having WA

      • would become a continuous flow - testable by re-observing in 2006
  • Next simplest symmetry: cylindrical (or bi-conical)Elvis 2000
bal end on nal
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006BAL = end-on NAL?

Mass Conservation

Eq. of Motion

NH(cone)

HIP LIP

NH(obs)

dr=vdt

R()

R()

r

q

standard torus standard issues
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006Standard Torus: Standard Issues
  • How is donut supported?
    • Covering fraction >50%,

yet cold (dusty)

    • Cloud-cloud collisions should flatten structure
    • Thick clumpy accretion needs Mtorus>MEddsee SgrA*

Vollmer, Beckert & Duschl 2004 A&A 413, 949

mass outflow rates
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

NH >10 times smaller with new models

PHASE (Krongold et al., 2003)

NGC 3783

Bound-free edges only

full PHASE model

Black line: includes bound-bound lines

Mass Outflow Rates

Mdotout = 0.8pmpNH vr R f(q,j)

  • MdotHIP =

(4.3 - 9.2) x 10-5 Msol yr-1

  • MdotLIP < 6 x 10-5 Msol๏yr-1 = 0.02 Mdotacc
  • Mdotout = 2% - 5% Mdotacc
  • If lifetime =108yr  Mtot(out)=(0.4-2)x104Msol
  • Mdotout scales with BH mass if at same Rg

MBH(NGC4051) = 2 x 106 Msol

 for MBH = 108-109Msol

 Mtot(quasar) = 106-107 Msol

KEtot(wind) = 1055 erg

small, but comparable with ULIRGs

Mdotoutinsensitive to q, j unless j>75o, q<10o

agn cosmological feedback1
Hagaifest, Tel Aviv, 22 February 2006

Simulation

Bimodal galaxy colors

Data

AGN & Cosmological Feedback
  • AGN: Zero to hero in cosmology
  • Invoked in many areas:
    • Co-evolution of SMBHs & their hosts
    • Prevention of star formation in mergers
    • Creation of the upper mass limit for galaxies
    • Inhibition of vooling flows
    • Enrichment of the IGM
    • Creation of dust at high z

R. Somerville: CfA lunch talk, March 2005