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Knowledge. Acquisition (perception). Use. ch. 3: Vision . How are objects recognized?. Ch. 6-11: Long-term Memory - to know is to remember. ch.4: Attention . ch. 5: Working Memory - Buffer for mental representations. Course Overview. Ch. 12-14: Reasoning - Problem Solving.

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Course overview l.jpg

Knowledge

Acquisition

(perception)

Use

ch. 3: Vision. How are objects recognized?

Ch. 6-11:

Long-term Memory

- to know is

to remember

ch.4: Attention.

ch. 5: Working Memory

- Buffer for mental representations

Course Overview

Ch. 12-14: Reasoning

-

Problem Solving



Slide3 l.jpg

Memory Processes

Rehearsal

Encoding

Attention

Retrieval

Short-Term

Memory (STM)

Long-Term

Memory (LTM)

Sensory

Memory


Sensory memory aka iconic memory l.jpg
Sensory Memory (aka iconic memory)

  • Modality specific (iconic, echoic)

  • Very rapid decay (300 ms after a stimulus is removed)

    • Partial vs. Whole Report(Sperling 1960)

      • An array of letters is presented very briefly.

      • Report all letters present.

      • READY? (CogLab experiment)


Slide5 l.jpg

A Z E D

M P H X

C G J N

D F Y

S U I

L H B

R B S

N C Q

B H A


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2 4 6 8 10 12

# of letters correctly reported

whole report

2 4 6 8 10 12

# of letters in the stimulus

Diagonal:

Perfect

performance

Participants can report ~4 letters.


Slide7 l.jpg

Partial Report(Sperling 1960)

  • An array of letters is presented very briefly.

  • An tone indicates which row of letters to report (‘top’)

  • The tone occurs after the letters have disappeared

  • READY?


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A Z E D

M P H X

C G J N


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partial report

2 4 6 8 10 12

# of letters correctly reported

(# of letters “available” for report)

advantage

whole report

2 4 6 8 10 12

# of letters in the stimulus

Participants see more than 4 letters,


Slide10 l.jpg

Data -- partial report advantage

How to account for the data?

Propose an internal construct:

- a very brief memory store -- “sensory memory”

- in whole report, information is lost from sensory

memory by the time the first letter or two are

written down

But what exactly is the duration of this memory store?

How could we determine?


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Sperling (1960)

10

8

# of letters available

6

4

2

.15 .30 .60 1.0

delay of tone cue (seconds)


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To what extent is information in sensory memory processed?

What is the “code”?

- “raw”, visual code?

- categorical code? ( vowel or consonant)

- identity code? (the exact identity of the letters)


Slide13 l.jpg

V

V

V

V

V

T

T

C

T

C

T

M

C

M

C

M

M

C

B

C

B

B

C

B

Sensory Memory

A

X

E

S

F

K

T

O

V

I

U

N


Slide14 l.jpg

partial report,

categorical cue

Sperling (1960)

partial report

location cue

2 4 6 8 10 12

# of letters correctly reported

(# of letters “available” for report)

whole report

2 4 6 8 10 12

# of letters in the stimulus


Slide15 l.jpg

No partial report advantage for category cues!

information in sensory memory is encoded spatially rather than semantically

“Where” is sensory memory?

- is it just an afterimage on the retina?

- is it a more “central” kind of memory?

McCloskey & Watkins (1978)

- anorthoscopic perception


Slide16 l.jpg

Memory Processes

Rehearsal

Attention

(tone)

Short-Term

Memory (STM)

Sensory

Memory

  • Very rapid decay

  • Modality specific


Short term memory stm a k a working memory wm l.jpg

  • A cognitive system that allows the maintenance of information on line or available for immediate processing.

  • We should ask:

  • What are the constituent parts of WM?

  • Properties of WM: capacity, code, duration

  • What is WM for? Reading, problem solving, mental arithmetic, reasoning

  • Is it really different from long-term memory?

Short Term Memory (STM)

a.k.a. Working Memory (WM)


1 what are wm constituent parts l.jpg
1. What are WM constituent parts? information

WM is modality specific (verbal & visual codes are stored separately)

  • Visual WM

  • Verbal WM

    There are subdivisions even within modality

  • Visual WM: Spatial ; Object

  • Verbal WM: Articulatory ; Buffer

    ‘Something’ has to coordinate all this info

  • Central Executive


Slide19 l.jpg

WM is modality specific. information Prediction:If verbal and visual WM are independent, verbal and visual STM loads should not interfere with each other

‘remember these numbers’

3 9 8 2 1 7 4

Load verbal WM

‘remember

this shape’

delay

Test Spatial WM

‘compare shapes’

‘recall numbers’

?

Manipulation check


Slide20 l.jpg

4 9 3 2 6 8 7 information

?

Questions: what is our DV?, what is our IV?


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High load information

No load

Low load

3 9 8 2 1 7 4

3 9

Test Spatial WM

?

?

Manipulation check

Verbal WM load

Results

Visual WM performance remains unchanged at different levels of verbal wm load. No interference.


2 properties of wm capacity how many things can you hold in wm l.jpg
2. Properties of WM information Capacity: How many things can youhold in WM?

  • It may be different for Visual and Verbal WM

  • Verbal WM: digit span task

  • Visual WM: change detection task (Luck & Vogel 1997)



Slide24 l.jpg

900 ms Blank information



Slide26 l.jpg

~ 4 objects Remembered information

- Again no interference with verbal WM load


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Are all objects treated equally in VSTM? No. information

2.6

1.6

2.0

2.8

3.7

4.4

Alvarez & Cavanagh (2004)


2 properties of wm code how is information in wm encoded l.jpg
2. Properties of WM information Code: How is information in WM encoded?

  • The code will be different for Visual & Verbal WM

  • Verbal WM: we’ll discuss this later in the lecture

  • Visual WM:

    • A. Do we store objects or features?

    • B. Is ‘spatial’ WM different from ‘object’ WM?


Slide29 l.jpg

2. Properties of WM information Code: Do we store objects or features?

Each object has 2 features (color, orientation)

Participants either monitor for a change in a single feature

Or they monitor for a change in either feature (conjunction)


Slide30 l.jpg

Memory for objects (conjunction condition) is as good as memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that visual STM stores ‘objects’ (Luck & Vogel, 1997)


Slide31 l.jpg

Four features memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

color

orientation

size

gap

Monitor for a change in a single feature

Or monitor for a change in any feature


1 what are wm constituent parts32 l.jpg
1. What are WM constituent parts? memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

WM is modality specific (verbal & visual codes are stored separately)

  • Visual WM

  • Verbal WM

    There are subdivisions even within modality

  • Visual WM: Spatial ; Object

  • Verbal WM: Articulatory ; Buffer

    ‘Something’ has to coordinate all this info

  • Central Executive


Slide33 l.jpg

2. Properties of WM memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that Code: Is spatial WM different from Object WM?

Spatial: is the probe in a same or different location than the circle in the initial display?

encode

initial

display

delay

Object: is the probe of a same or different color as the one in the initial display?

probe

Different brain regions active during storage in working memory of spatial and object information


Slide34 l.jpg

2. Properties of WM memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that Code: Is spatial WM different from Object WM?

Color squares (set size 1-12) for 100 ms


Slide35 l.jpg

Conjunction visual search (attention) memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that


Slide36 l.jpg

Color squares (set size 1-12) for 100 ms memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that


Slide37 l.jpg

Spatial WM: ‘where’ memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

Object WM: ‘what’

VisuoSpatial Attention

Same location?

Same color?

Results:

- Spatial WM performance interferes with visual search

- Object WM does NOT interfere with visual search


Slide38 l.jpg

Visual WM memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

- Capacity: 4-5

  • It stores ‘objects’

  • & spatial locations

1. What are WM constituent parts?

WM is modality specific

  • Visual WM

  • Verbal WM

    There are subdivisions even within modality

  • Visual WM: Spatial ; Object

  • Verbal WM: Articulatory ; Buffer

Verbal WM


Slide39 l.jpg

Phonological memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that short-term store

Sub-vocal

rehearsal

process

Verbal information

1. What are the constituent parts of Verbal Working Memory?

& phonological decoding of written language


Phonological buffer evidence l.jpg
Phonological Buffer: Evidence memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

  • Task: Memory Span (CogLab experiment)

    • Read a list of items, and repeat them

  • Phonological Similarity:

    • Confusions occur if words sound alike mad, cat, man, map, cat

    • But not for similar meaning: huge, long, tall, big, wide

    • nor for similar-looking: bough, cough, dough, through

  • So, the code of verbal WM is ‘acoustic’


Subvocal rehearsal evidence l.jpg
Subvocal Rehearsal: Evidence memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

  • Articulatory suppression: repeatedly say “the” while hearing the list of items. “the the the the the the”

    • Decreases performance in just 20 secs (duration)

    • Reduces phonological similarity effect (convergent evidence for phonological buffer)

  • Word length effect:

    • memory span for “sum, wit, harm” better than for “opportunity, individual, university” because it takes shorter to articulate

  • Neurological overlap with language areas


Slide42 l.jpg

Neural overlap between verbal WM and language memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

Speech production areas and language receptive areas are active when people try to remember phonological information


2 properties of verbal wm l.jpg
2. Properties of verbal WM memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

  • Code: Phonological

  • Capacity: How many things can youhold in verbal WM?

    7 + 2 items

  • But what counts as an item?

    • A word? A letter? A sentence? A phoneme?

    • An association (a pointer) to a representation in long-term memory (i.e, chunking)


Slide44 l.jpg

Ready for a test memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

B F K E J F I K A R A F D


Slide45 l.jpg

Another trial memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

F B I J F K C I A F D R


Slide46 l.jpg

F B I C I A F D R J F K memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

chunking allows storage of greater amounts of information…because information is “packaged” more efficiently


Slide47 l.jpg

Rehearsal memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

Short-Term Working Memory:

A multi-part system

Central

Executive

(coordination)

  • All the WM tasks discussed so far are pretty ‘dumb’.

  • Humans are capable of doing much more with their WM.

  • Something has to coordinate all the parts of WM.

Visual WM

Verbal WM

- Capacity: 4-5

- Capacity: 7 + 2

  • It stores ‘objects’

  • & spatial locations

- It stores ‘sounds’ -- acoustic code

- It has buffer and rehearsal


3 what is working memory for l.jpg
3. What is Working Memory for? memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

  • Keeping information available: mentally reciting a telephone before writing it down. Pretty dumb task

  • Reading,

  • problem solving: mentally rotating the image in the instructions when building IKEA furniture

  • mental arithmetic: Calculate how much to tip the waiter?

  • Reasoning


The central executive l.jpg
The Central Executive memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

  • Supervise attention

  • Planning/Coordination

  • Monitoring


Frontal lobe syndrome l.jpg
Frontal lobe syndrome memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

  • Distractibility, difficulty concentrating

  • Problems with organization, planning

  • Perseveration: fail to stop inappropriate behavior


Slide51 l.jpg

Memory Processes memory for a single feature (e.g., color), despite the fact that objects require the storage of twice as many features. This is evidence that

Rehearsal

Encoding

Attention

Retrieval

Short-Term

Memory (STM)

Long-Term

Memory (LTM)

Sensory

Memory

  • Very rapid decay

  • Modality specific

  • Limited Capacity (7+2)

  • Consciously available

  • Flexible material

  • Decays if not rehearsed

  • Unlimited capacity

  • Hard to get stuff in it

  • Organized semantically

++++++++ Different domains: Visual, Verbal, etc.+++++++++


4 is working memory really a process different than long term memory l.jpg
4. Is Working Memory really a process different than Long-term Memory?

  • Reading, problem solving, mental arithmetic, reasoning

  • Is it really different from long-term memory?


Slide53 l.jpg

  • Free Recall Task Long-term Memory?

  • Listen a list of words (10-40),

  • at the end write all the words you remember

  • you can list them in any order.


Slide54 l.jpg

1. Monster Long-term Memory?

2. Camera

3. Tricycle

4. Melon

5. Window

6. Guest

7. Quiet

8. Cherish

9. Waiting

10. Villanova

11. Computer

12. Child

13. Chicken

14. Ghost

15. Slave

Serial Position Function

Probability of reporting

the item

?

1 2 ……… 30

Position in Original List


Slide55 l.jpg

List Length Long-term Memory?

20 30 40

Prob.

Of

Rept.

1 10 20 30 40

Position in Original List

Serial position effects are consistent over different list sizes...


Slide56 l.jpg

distinctiveness Long-term Memory?

Villanova

Primacy

Recency

Privileged rehearsal

better LTM encoding

STM contribution

(Glanzer & Kunitz, 1966)


Slide57 l.jpg

distinctiveness Long-term Memory?

Lincoln

Washington

Adams

Jefferson

W

Clinton

Bush senior

Reagan

Johnson

Primacy

Recency


Slide58 l.jpg

STM Long-term Memory?

LTM


Slide59 l.jpg

Primacy and Recency Effects Long-term Memory?

STM

LTM

early sensory

processing

  • Unlimited capacity

  • Hard to get stuff into it.

  • Organized semantically

  • Consciously available

  • Flexible material

  • Fixed # of slots

  • (7+2 chunks)

  • Decays if not rehearsed


Slide60 l.jpg

STM Long-term Memory?

(Murray Glanzer)


Slide61 l.jpg

(Murray Glanzer) Long-term Memory?

LTM


Slide62 l.jpg

  • Independence of LTM and STM: Long-term Memory?

  • Neurological evidence

    • Patient H.M.

    • - Normal working memory: normal digit span

    • - Impaired Long-term memory (anterograde amnesia): unable to learn most new information.

    • Patient K.F.

    • - Impaired working memory: Digit span of 1 item

    • - Normal Long-term memory (learn word lists when lists presented repeatedly, and do fine on long-term recognition).


Slide63 l.jpg

(Alan Baddeley) Long-term Memory?

Normals

Prob.

Of

Rept.

STM Patients

Position


Slide64 l.jpg

Sensory Long-term Memory?

Anterograde Amnesiamight be explained as a blockage of the flow of information from STM to LTM

LTM

STM


Slide65 l.jpg

Sensory Long-term Memory?

BUT…short term memory deficits in the absence of LTM deficits spell trouble for this gateway model of LTM acquisition...

LTM

STM

Entry into STM is not necessary for entry into LTM


Slide66 l.jpg

  • Double dissociations guard against Long-term Memory?resource artifacts (differences in task performance that stem from differences in task difficulty)

  • For example,

    • I can juggle 3 balls, but

    • I cannot juggle 5 balls,

  • Should we conclude that juggling 3 balls is a process independent from juggling 5? Or that juggling 5 balls is a more difficult task?

    • We’ll argue for independence only if we find someone who is unable to juggle 3 balls but can juggle 5 (double dissociation). Quite unlikely :-)


Slide67 l.jpg

  • Double dissociations guard against Long-term Memory?resource artifacts (differences in task performance that stem from differences in task difficulty)

  • For example, Patient H. M. has:

  • - impaired LTM but,

  • - normal STM

  • Should we conclude that LTM is a process independent from STM? Or that LTM is a more difficult task?

    • We’ll argue for independence only if we find someone who is unable to hold things in STM but can retain them in LTM (patient K.H.).


Slide68 l.jpg

Four memory systems for visual information Long-term Memory?

1. Visible persistence (afterimage)

Complete sensory (low-level) representation that lasts for 100 ms or so after a stimulus appears. Information preserved in precise retinotopic coordinates.

2. Informational persistence (iconic memory)

Decays within ~300 ms after a stimulus is removed.

3. Visual Short-term memory

Limited-capacity visual representation lasting up to many seconds and abstracted away from precise retinotopic organization. Can store ~ 3-4 objects (Luck & Vogel, 1997)

4. Visual Long-term memory

Highly robust retention of visual representations (at least up to a year).