Key Terms Loess- A fine silt deposited by wind and water. Shang- The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records. Divination- Techniques for ascertaining the future or will of the gods ny interpreting natural phenomena. Zhou- The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in northern China from the shang and created the concept of the Man date of heaven. Mandate of Heaven- Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou. Legalism- Political Philosophy ,in china, that emphasized the imperfectness of human nature and justified state control. Confucius- Western name for the chinese philosopher Kongzi. Daoism- Chinese school of thought, Originating in the waring states period with Laozi Yin/Yang- In Chinese belief, complementary factors that help to maintain the equilibrium of the world. Kush- An Egyptian name for Nubia, the region alongside the Nile river. Meroe- Capitol of flourishing kingdom of Nubia. Olmec- The first Mesoamerican civilization. Chavin- The first major urban civilization in south America. Llama- Hoofed animal indigenous to the Andes Mountains.
Geography and Location • China was separated from the rest of the eastern hemisphere by natural barriers, The Himalayas on the south west, Pamir and Tian, and the Makan desert on the west. • Even though all these natural isolations in there way, china was still big in trade. People, ideas and trade moved back and forth through India, China and Central Asia. • Communications through Asia were slow because the continent of Asia was covered with mountains.
Political • The shang were ruled by a king. • Before taking any actions the king would use divination to determine the will of the gods. • They would sacrifice animals, humans,noble officers, servants and women. • Owning bronze was a sign of high authority.
Political • The Zhou were also ruled by kings. • There chief deity was heaven. • There kings were called the son of heaven and there rule was called The Mandate of Heaven. • The Zhou believed that there ruler was chosen by a supreme deity, and that no matter how long the king ruled the supreme deity would back him as long as he was a wise and virtuous leader to his people. • There system was almost like the Shangs divination.
Political Philosophies • Legalism,Confucianism and Daoism were huge governement philosophies that guided people how to live there lives.
Legalism • Legalism was what the state called taking taxes from its citizens and demanding obedience. • The state started writing down codes of law and taking taxes directly from peasants. The legalist government also managed large scale work projects. • Legalist believed that humans were naturally wicked, and that they needed to be controlled by strict laws.
Confucianism • Many of the Confucian ideas came from ancient Chinese family structure. Including the Zhou royal family. • Confucius believed governments should be set up like family. • He took the traditional term of feelings for family members and turned it into a universal ideal of benevolence toward all humanity.
Daoism • All Daoists accepted the world for how they saw it. • They also believed they could end all war if everyone would follow the Dao or the path.
Nubia had a large supply of natural wealth like,Gold, Copper and semiprecious stones. • Egypt was very interested in Nubian gold. • Nubia’s location, natural wealth and Egypt's high demand for gold explains its early up coming.
Geography • Mesoamerica is a region of great climate diversity and geographic diversity. • Geologically it’s a very active land with many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. • Huge mountain ranges break the region into microenviroments.
Culture • The Olmec's were the most influential Mesoamerican society that originated in the tropical Atlantic coast. • There urban developments were made possible by early advances in agriculture. • Mesoamerican diets consisted of corn, beans, and squash. • The Olmec’s would align there cities according to the path of certain stars, because of there strong belief in astronomical events
Political • Little is known about the political system of the Olmec's, but it seems likely that there politics was a form of kinship combined with religious and secular rules. • Precisely crafted objects were in the households of the elites. • The authority of there kin groups is suggested by large colossal stone heads, Archeologists believe that they were built special for each ruler.
The Olmec elite used many religious rituals to control there complex society. • Thousands of people would come from the country sides to watch there amazing ceremonies in there centers. • The Olmec's were, to be believed, polytheistic. Most of there deities were male and female, some were also animals. • Jaguars, crocodile's and snakes were some of there animal deities.
Geography • Geography was a big challenge for civilizations in the Andes, It forced humans to adapt and create special societies with special institutions and jobs. • The Andes was a diverse enviroment with a mountainous core, arid costal plain and thick interior jungle.
Culture • The Chavin inherited its culture and economic characteristics from the Caral. • The Chavin had trade routes connected to the mountain, coastal and tropic regions. As the Chavin grew they became linked to the coastal economy and there producers. • The Chavin depended on the earlier advancements of earlier Mesoamerican civilizations and used those as a spring board for there advancements. • The Chavins advancements consisted of roads, bridges, temples, palaces and large irrigation and drainage systems.