Ancient Greece World History
Questions to answer by the end of this lesson: • 1. What are the 2 great epics that were written in ancient Greece and who wrote them? • 2. Compare Greek religion with others you have learned about. • 3. How did noblesget power in Greece? How did they lose it? What part did tyrantsplay? • 4. What 4 things did all Greek city-states have in common?
No unity because of geography Mountain ranges and water separated Communities. NO great river systems unlike other Ancient civilizations.
Agriculture • Climate good for crops (mild) • Good pasture for sheep and goats • BUT not enough flat land to grow a lot of crops • So………………………………………..
Results of sea trade • Greek traders gained knowledge from places like Egypt and the Fertile Crescent. • Check up: How did geography influence the way of life of the early Greeks?
Minoan civlization • On Crete • Minos= king • Minotaur myth
Developments in Minoan civilization • Writing, running water in homes! • Frescoes, art, bronze. Ivory, gold, silver • Women has important roles • Minoans playful, had festivals, worshipped bull and earth goddesses….
Volcano! • Weakened Minoan civilization. • Eventually, Indo-Europeans came and took over.
Dark ages • War-like Mycenaeans conquered Crete. • Illiterate. Knowledge of reading and writing disappeared until Phoenicians introduced alphabet around 750 BCE
City-states = polis • Influenced by geographic and tribal organization . • polis- fort + city + land surrounding
Common features of city-states • Small size (300-500 sq miles) Athens is smaller than Rhode Island! • Small population (usually less than 10,000 people). Citizens=free males. Women were citizens but had no political rights. • Placed on a hill or mountain (Acropolis) • Has a public market place (Agora)
In each city state • Unique for each city state: laws, calendar, money, system of weights and measures • All city states: common language, descendant (Hellen), religious ideas, common temples and festivals like the Olympics! Prejudice against non-Greeks
Greek gov’t and society • Homeric Age: named after poet Homer who wrote epics: Iliad and Odyssey • Story of both revolves around • the Trojan War
Religion and Morals • Purposes: • Explain the physical world • Explain human passions • Means for gaining long life, good harvest, and fortune • People needed to speak to gods through priests and priesteses • Oracle: could predict future
Greek gods • Human characteristics and weaknesses
myths • Explained the world
Athletics • Important because displays of strength pleased the gods. Only men!
nobles • Took over kingdoms because they controlled armies and had the power to take over! They owned land and farmers were allowed to live and work on land if they paid a small amount.
Colonies spread greek culture • Sometimes farmers couldn’t pay for their land so they were forced to leave. Some moved to cities to become merchants, some left to settle colonies . This also spread Greek culture around the Mediterranean and helped the Greeks to learn from other civilizations.
trade • Colonies imported goods from Greece and exported grain and other products to Greece.
Aristocracies: Rule by the best • City-states ruled by nobles = Aristocracies • Eventually power of noblesweakened by hoplites (non-aristocratic soldiers who could afford their own weapons. • They fought in phalanx (close rows) so they could withstand cavalry charges by aristocratic horsemen.
Demands of hoplites • More say in gov’t • Poor citizens and farmers also wanted leaders who promised a better life: tyrants. • Idea of popular gov’t led to democracy.
Check up! • Answer the following questions! 1. What are the 2 great epics that were written in ancient Greece and who wrote them? 2. Compare Greek religion with others you have learned about. 3. How did nobles get power in Greece? How did they lose it? What part did tyrants play? 4. What 4 things did all Greek city-states have in common?
?s to answer by the end of the lesson • Describe the gov’t of Sparta, incl the emphasis on militarism • Define the following: helot, ephors, metics, archon,Draco, Solon, Persistratus, Cleisthenes. • Define the features of the early government of Athens. What reforms occurred to transform this government into a democracy? • What is the difference between direct democracy and representative democracy?
Structure of Sparta • Est. by Dorian invaders. Highly militarized • 3 social groups: • Equals: citizens descendant to Dorians. Land dist equally among them and worked on by helots. • Half-citizens: free, paid taxes, served in army, but no political power. Some were farmers and some lived in towns and were merchants. • Helots: slaves of Sparta city-state. Outnumbered other groups! • Spartans terrorized helots to keep them from rebelling.
government • Assembly: all adult male citizens • Council of elders • 2 kings • 5 ephors (overseers) elected by assembly for 1 year term. Monitored kings and citizens. Unlimited power as guardians of the state.
Military machine • Training from birth! • Every adult male had to be in the military • Weak baby boys sent to die • 7 year olds went to live in military barracks • Had to steal food to live: punished only for being caught. EXPECTED to steal!
Rules of the military • Service from age 20-50! • Can marry @ 20 but can’t live at home or go to the marketplace until you’re 30. • No trade or business: love of money gets in the way of military discipline
Spartan girls • Had to be strong to raise soldiers! • Boys and girls: studies music to learn discipline and coordination
Sacrifices of military might • -No individual freedom, no art, no literature, no philosophy or science
Athens: birth of democracy • Dif from Sparta: passed up by Dorian invaders. • Infertile land: they became traders, coined money, city inland • Typical polis: on a hill, protected by city walls.
Social standing • Citizens: All adult men had full rights NOT women • Non-citizens: metics: worked as merchants or artisans. Free but couldn’t vote or own land. • Slaves: considered a necessity. Captured in war • At Athens' peak, over half of the population were meticsand slaves!
Early government in Athens • Aftermonarchy, aristocraticcitizens with a certain amt of land held office. • Elections: All adult males met in assembly and elected generals and 9 archons (rulers). • Judges interpreted the laws and applied them to specific situations.
Political reform • Late 600s: economic discontent, Arbitrary decisions made by aristocratic judges.
Laws • Greeks began writing down laws so everyone knew what they were. • Draco’s laws: 1st law code-harsh. Today Draconian = harsh law or rule
More problems: inequality • Nobles and metics were wealthy but peasants and farmers were poor and unhappy so………
New leader: solon • Solon became a leader in 594 BCE and mediated between debtors and auditors. • Awesome things Solon did: • Cancelled debt for poor, outlawed enslavement for debt, freed those who had been enslaved for non-payment.
More things Solon did: • Solon divided citizens into 4 groups based on wealth • 3 wealthiest groups could hold public office. All citizens could sit in assemblyto elect officials. • Limited power of judges: set up court composed of many citizens who could appeal unfavorable decisions. • Unrest NOT over! Nobles formed rival political groups and struggled to control gov’t
Tyrant Peisitratusseized power • Improved economy and exiled nobles who disagreed with him. MAY have distributed land to poor farmers.
Democratic state • Cleithenes (508 BCE): turned Athens into a democracy. • Divided citizens into 10 tribes and subdivided them into 100 smaller units widely spread out. • Unit of Power: self-governing states. Representatives chosen by lot. Members of the Council of 500 (50 members from each tribe) • Rules: members serve 1 year and can’t serve more than twice • Laws: proposed by council to assembly at least 10x/year. Source of ultimate authority.
Courts democratic • Jurors chosen by lot • Equality of all citizens for government service • Each man pleads own case. Jury votes by secret ballot.
Under Cleisthenes • Direct democracy: all citizens participate in making decisions. CONTRAST to U.S! • Representative Government: Citizens vote for government representatives to make decisions.
Check up: Answer the following: • Describe the gov’t of Sparta, incl the emphasis on militarism • Define the following: helot, ephors, metics, archon,Draco, Solon, Persistratus, Cleisthenes. • Define the features of the early government of Athens. What reforms occurred to transform this government into a democracy? • What is the difference between direct democracy and representative democracy?
Daily life in athens • Farming: Over ½ citizens • Used terracing Farming not good, so Athens depended on trade.
?’s to answer at end of lesson • Defineterracing, pedagogue, rhetoric • Why was Athens so dependent on trade? • Describe Greek attitudes toward women as shown in marriage, rights of citizenship, social life and education. • What does Greek education reveal about their society?