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Media Analysis of HIV Attributable to Sexual Assault in a Global Context. Krystel Tossone, MA, MPH Kent State University October 19 th , 2012 CERC Health Disparities Institute. Aimee Budnik , MS, RD, CLC; Laura Schuch , MPH; Eric Jefferis , PhD. Overview of Presentation. Scope of Problem

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media analysis of hiv attributable to sexual assault in a global context

Media Analysis of HIV Attributable to Sexual Assault in a Global Context

Krystel Tossone, MA, MPH

Kent State University

October 19th, 2012

CERC Health Disparities Institute

Aimee Budnik, MS, RD, CLC; Laura Schuch, MPH; Eric Jefferis, PhD

overview of presentation
Overview of Presentation
  • Scope of Problem
  • Aim of Study
  • Methods of Inquiry
  • Results: GIS Analysis
  • Results: Thematic Analysis
  • Discussion
scope of problem
Scope of Problem
  • Dual epidemic of HIV and sexual assault (SA)
    • Southern Africa1
    • Conflict-ridden areas2
  • Prevalence generally unknown
    • Varies by region?
    • Intimate partner violence (IPV) as risk factor3
  • Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) delivery difficult
    • Prescriber4,5
    • Region’s policies?
    • Individual and interpersonal barriers6

1. Kim JC, Martin LJ, & Denny L. (2003). Rape and HIV-post exposure prophylaxis: Addressing the dual epidemics in South Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, 11(22): 101-112. 2. Spiegel PB, Bennedsen AR, Claass J, Bruns L, Patterson N, Yiweza D, & Schilperoord M. (2007). Prevalence of HIV infection in conflict-affected and displaced people in seven sub-Saharan African countries: A systematic review. The Lancet, 369: 2187-2195. 3. Gielen AC, McDonnell KA, O’Campo PJ. (2002). Intimate partner violence, HIV status and sexual risk reduction. AIDS and Behavior, 6(2): 107-116. 4. Christofides NJ, Jewkes RK, Webster N, Penn-Kekana L, Abrahams N, Martin LJ. (2005). “Other patients are really in need of medical attention”- the quality of health services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83(7): 495-502. 5. Bakhru A, Mallinger JB, & Fox MC. (2010). Postexposure prophylaxis for victims of sexual assault: treatments and attitudes of emergency room physicians. Contraception, 82: 168-172. 6. Abrahams N & Jewkes R. (2010). Barriers to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) completion after rape: a South African qualitative study. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 12(5): 471-484.

aim of study
Aim of Study
  • To explore the social perception of HIV attributable to SA (HIVSA) by using the media
    • What is the thematic representation among the articles?
    • What is the geographic distribution of articles found and their relationship with themes found?
methods
Methods
  • LexisNexis global news article search
    • “Sexual Assault” AND “HIV”
    • December 1985 to April 2012
    • English-speaking only
  • Thematic and Content Analyses
    • 1st round: 2-coder independent article search (n = 999)
    • 2nd round: Independent theme development (n = 409)
    • 3rd round: Independent Coding and final theme reconciliation (n = 380)
  • ArcGIS Analysis
major theme 1 calling for change in cultures of silence
Major Theme 1: Calling for Change in “Cultures of Silence”
  • Identification of a need to change the attitudes of a society
    • Less emphasis on police reporting, more on SA services
    • Allow SA survivors to receive PEP
    • Pass testing & notification laws
  • Yet, stereotyped advice still continues
    • Victim responsibility of SA
major theme 2 dual trauma of hiv and sexual assault
Major Theme 2: Dual Trauma of HIV and Sexual Assault
  • Early 90s: HIV is a “death sentence” for victim
    • Rapists with known HIV+ have higher sentencing
  • Difficulties with uncertainty of HIV status
    • Managing getting tested, waiting for results
    • Delay in knowing offender’s status
    • Calling for laws to pacify victim
  • An assault is worse if offender knows + status
major theme 3 who is not allowed as a victim offender in society
Major Theme 3: Who is/not Allowed as a Victim/Offender in Society
  • Classist/Nationalist stereotypes of offenders
    • “Laborer”, “farm worker”
    • Immigrants and natives as “brutes”
  • Protectors of society and those in high power should not be offenders
    • Parents, police, military, older members
    • Shocking violations- increase in article frequency?
  • The most victimized are those who have the least responsibility over their actions
    • Children, mentally handicapped are victims
    • Prisoners, men, drug/alcohol users are not
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Geographic Results:
    • Disparity in the articles represented and the co-prevalence of HIV and SA
  • Thematic Results:
    • Universal and regional themes
    • Recognition for social/policy changes
    • What are missing regions experiencing?
what s next
What’s Next?
  • Hypothesis-generating exercise
    • How do regions differ in discourse of HIVSA?
    • Do other regions experience HIVSA at similarly to S. Africa?
    • How can media impact/inform society of HIVSA?
  • Further exploration of article search
    • Temporality of articles
    • Statistical analysis
    • Discourse in other languages
  • Can the audience give remarks on the subject of HIVSA relative to their region or culture?