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Inheritance and Genetics. Gregor Mendel. Studied the garden pea studied height, flower color, seed coat color, and seed shape over many generations he chose 1 or 2 traits per generation to watch crossed plants with different traits and learned that offspring usually had dominate trait.

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gregor mendel
Gregor Mendel
  • Studied the garden pea
  • studied height, flower color, seed coat color, and seed shape over many generations
  • he chose 1 or 2 traits per generation to watch
  • crossed plants with different traits and learned that offspring usually had dominate trait
discovery
Discovery
  • Mendel found that the inheritance of traits was not due to blending but instead specific traits or units of inheritance were passed from generation to generation
  • we call those units of inheritance genes
slide4
No matter what trait he selected for the second generation would show traits at a ratio of 3 to 1 (3 dominate for everyone recessive)
  • From this he deduced the presence of genes and alleles
  • Homozygous- same allele
  • Heterozygous - different allele
slide5
Alleles - alternate forms of the same trait or gene
  • similar genes are arranged in a similar orger in a chromosome, the location is called a locus
  • since 2 alternate forms are present we describe them with capital (dominant) and lower case (recessive) letters
  • In a homologous pair a dominant allele masks the presence of a recessive allele
slide6
Homozygous with dominant
  • Homozygous with recessive
  • Heterozygous ?
  • Genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an individual
  • Phenotype refers to the actual expression of the genetic makeup
mendel s principles of inheritance
Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance
  • Inherited traits are transmitted by genes which occur in alternate forms called alleles
  • Principle of Dominance - when 2 forms of the same gene are present the dominant allele is expressed
  • Principle of Segregation - in meiosis two alleles separate so that each gamete receives only one form of the gene
  • Principle of Independent Assortment - each trait is inherited independent of other traits (chance)
assignment
Assignment
  • Draw a Punnett square for 2 genes
  • Use Bb for hair color and Ee for eye color