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تاريخ العمارة الاسلامية

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تاريخ العمارة الاسلامية. تاريخ العمارة الاسلامية. Islamic Architecture History. Touloun dynasty 868-905 AC. Toulon dynasty 868-905 AC.

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تاريخ العمارة الاسلامية

تاريخ العمارة الاسلامية

Islamic Architecture History

Toulon dynasty 868-905 AC
  • When the rule of Egypt gaved to Al-Amir Ahmed Ibn Tuloun he established a new capital in 868AC (Alqtaia city), and has been through out the era of al-tolonnian, Al-ikhcidiin
  • When the Fatimids conquered Egypt by the Sicilian Jawhar commander of goats of Fatimid Al-Moa’az, and subjected the city to the influence of the Fatimids, he established the new capital (Cairo) in 970AC
  • Toulon is a Turkish Mamlukes giftted by Bukhara wally to the Caliph al-Ma'mun
  • He developed at the service in the Abbasid court reached the ranks of princes
  • His son grew up - Ahmed Ibn Tulun – have love of science by keeping and studied the Koran figih and the Hadith and Fiqh and showed the wisdom and advantage over peers.
Toulon dynasty 868-905 AC
  • He was mandated as Bakpak of Egypt by the Abbasid Caliph in the year it introduced its 254 AH
  • first the mandate of Ahmed Ibn Tulun on Egypt is limited to Fostat then expand its over Egypt and spread its influence to the sham and and base the foundations of the toulounian State, which ruled Egypt from 254 to 292 years AH
  • he Died in 270 AH and Ahmed Ibn Tulun is the important figure in the history of Egypt, the Islamic movement, where Antqltha Egypt deal as an autonomous state not of the mandate of the Abbasid Caliphate
Mosque of Ibn Touloun
  • This beautiful mosque is located in the heart of Islamic Cairo. Builtby Ahmed Ibn Tulun between 876 AD, located in saida Zeinab district, south of Cairo (the site of the city Alqtaia).
  • it is one of the oldest and largest Mosques in Egypt. The Mosque is built of mudbrick and has an outer courtyard topped with crenellation sand a spiral minaret.
  • The wooden frieze around the inner courtyard is said to contain one fifth of the koran in kufic inscriptions.
  • it characterized by the simplicity of the architecture. The Climb minaret for a fabulous view of the city
  • Its high strengthened walls capped with a covered way which evokes glorious times of the domineering Islam.
  • mosque minaret planned on basis of Samarra mosque, which are twisted around the elevator outside her body until the top
Mosque of Ibn Touloun
  • Built on Mount Yashkur, Ibn Tulun's mosque was the focal point of the Tulunid capital that lasted only 26 years.
  • The brick mosque is among Cairo's most visited Islamic monuments and one of its earliest. 
  • The congregational mosque is an attraction because of its majestic simplicity, grand scale and harmonious proportions.
  • The architectural influence of the princely city Samarra reflects Iraqi origins. 
  • The mosque fell into disuse when the city center moved north and west but was restored in later periods. 
  • Theablution fountainis a later addition by Sultan Ladjin, added in 1296 A.D.  
  • Amihrab on a pier overlooking the courtyard is attributed to the Fatimid vizier Al-Afdal in 1004 A.D.
  • The stucco work on the 300 windows and the pillars is unparalleled in quality and design. 
Mosque of Ibn Touloun
  • Current restoration efforts are underway daily, with workmen replicating the original design features in plaster.  The chain of paper dollcrenellations around the walls of the mosque are an innovation not seen elsewhere.  
  • The outer courtyard (ziyada) is an extension to insure the privacy and quiet to worshippers.
  • Cairo's only spiraling external staircase is that of Ibn Tulun.   Like the whole monument, it clearly shows Samarran influence.   The original one was in bricks and the present one is a later Mamluk restoration in stone.   A splendid panoramic view of Cairo and a topographical perspective of the mosque are best viewed from the upper most part of the minaret. 
The plan is rectangul of 138 m long and 118 m wide -and the Qibla rewaq is the biggest one, and the court surrounded by three rewaqs - at the West ,north, and east
  • Three of 19 meters extensions between the external walls of the mosque and three outer walls was built when the prayer crowded and thus these extensions change the shape to 162m rib square
  • Mediating the west extension the unique minaret in its kind that are not similar with the minarets of Cairo and the most likely modeled the minaret of Samara, which consists of a square based overfed by cylindrical layer overfed by octagonal layer and praised the other topped with a dome height of 40 meters
  • The stairs, it is abroad, and large parts of the decoration has geometric shapes and plant decoration copied from Iraq's Samarra
تطــــــور المسجد في العمارة الإسلامية
  • It consist of opened court of 92m rib mediated by the dome on the square based and has 4 arched openings with miadaah at the center
  • The stair inside the wall scaned to the neck and the court surrounded by 4 rewaqs and 5 pointed arched lines stand over rectangle piers with rounded corners attached colomns and the other rewaqs has two lines of colomns
  • The rewaqs covered with wooden roof moodeled the old roof and has some Kufi text from Quran
تطــــــور المسجد في العمارة الإسلامية
  • The four elevations are simple and not dominated by the types of decoration, only a row of windows frescoes cycle varied forms and end walls increases with decoration and a beautiful spiral Corresponds to each door of the mosque adoor in the extention except that a small opening in the wall leading to Dar al emmarah of Ahmed Ibn Tulun mosque east.
  • Qibla wall of the mihrab, mediates the great features of the remains not only the original Tjoifa and marble columns surrounding Otherwise, it is the work of Lajeen Sultan
  • Above the dome in front of the mihrab, a small wooden circle with colored glass windows
row of oil lamps hanging from the ceiling...the beautiful construction of this enormous mosque while walking through the many arches and running around between the playful shadows from the early evening sun 
تطــــــور المسجد في العمارة الإسلامية

يقوم إلى جانب المحراب منبر أمر بعمله السلطان لاجين حل محل المنبر الأصلى مصنوع من الخشب المجمع على هيئة أشكال هندسية تحصر بينها حشوات محلاة بزخارف دقيقة بارزة

هذا المنبر يعتبر من أجمل منابر مساجد القاهرة وأقدمها وهو إن جدد الكثير من حشوه يعتبر من حيث القدم ثالث المنابر القائمة بمصر:

فأولها منبر المسجد الموجود بدير القديسة كاترين بسينا والذى أمر بعمله الأفضل شاهنشاه فى أيام الخليفة الفاطمى الآمر بأحكام الله سنة 500 هجرية

وثانيها منبر المسجد العتيق بقوص الذى أمر بعمله الصالح طلائع سنة 550 هجرية

بقيت الزخارف الجصية التى نشاهدها حول العقود والفتحات وفى بعض بواطن العقود المشرفة على الصحن فهى وإن رمم الكثير منها إلا أنها لازالت باقية بطابعها الطولونى المستمد عناصرها من زخارف سامرا.

أما الزخارف المحفورة فى تجليد أعتاب بعض الأبواب فإنها قريبة الشبه جدا من زخارف سامرا

The mihrab, as well as the work platform is sold to the Sultan replaced the original platform is made of wood in the form of complex geometric shapes, including implants restricts sugar decorations minute milestone This forum is one of the top platforms and the oldest mosque in Cairo that is stuffed with a lot of new terms is the third soccer-based platforms in Egypt: First platform mosque Bsina Monastery of St. Catherine, who is doing better in the days شاهنشاه Fatimid Caliph ordered the provisions of God in 500 Hijri The second platform Bkos the old mosque, which is the vanguard of his good year 550 Hijri Remained plaster decoration on the contracts that we see in some of apertures and insiders in charge of contracts and the dish is restored, many of which, however, it still remains Altouleuny derived its character from the trappings of Samara. The decoration in the binding of the threshold of the excavated some sections it is very close to the decoration of Samara

تطــــــور المسجد في العمارة الإسلامية

عمل بعض الترميمات والإضافات فى عصر السلطان المملوكى حسام الدين لاجين [1297 – 1300]

هذه الإضافات هى: الميضاة التى تتوسط صحن الجامع، [والتى بنيت مكان نافورة فوارة غير مخصصة للوضوء تعلوها قبة كانت تتوسط الصحن المكشوف ولكنها احترقت عام 986م]، وكذلك المئذنة الملوية، التى تشبه مسجد المتوكل فى سامرا بالعراق، ولكن مسجد المتوكل مستطيل الشكل وجامع ابن طولون مربع الشكل.

كان الجامع متصل بقصر ابن طولون الذى أقيم فى سفح قلعة القاهرة الحالية ويصل بين البنائين "شارع مستقيم" وهذا يدل على أنه كان المسجد الجامع فى القاهرة القديمة "القطائع".

يتكون المسجد من جزأين أحدهما مكشوف هو الصحن الأوسط والآخر مسقوف هى ظلة القبلة وتضم خمسة أروقة تفصلها خمسة صفوف من العقود المدببة [بائكات] موازية للقبلة، تحملها "بدنات" من الأجر ذات أعمده ملتصقة فى أركانها الأربعة لترقيق حوافيها.

يبلغ ارتفاع الجدران حتى الشرفات نحو ثلاثة عشر مترا.

عدد البوابات تسعة عشر بابا.

شرافات هذا الجامع فريدة فى طرازها حيث تعلو الجدران الخارجية وكأنها أفراد متراصون يمسكون بأيدى بعضهم البعض، رامزة إلى المسلمين كالبنيان المرصوص يشد بعضه بعضا.

يبلغ عدد الشبابيك الجصية المخرمة بالجدار الخارجى - التى تحتوى على زخارف غير مكررة مما يحول دون السأم ونفس المشاهد- حوالى مائة وثمانية وعشرين شباكا، ثلاثة منها فى عهد أحمد بن طولون وباقيها فى العصرين الفاطمى والمملوكى.

أطلق ابن جبير على هذه الشبابيك الجصية المخرمة التى ملئت فراغاتها بالزجاج الملون اسم "الشمسيات"، وهذه الزخارف تأثرت تأثرا كبيرا بزخارف سامرا فى العراق.

يوجد ستة محاريب بالجامع، أقدمها المحراب الرئيسى الموجود فى ظلة القبة، وهو حنية مكسوة بالرخام والفسيفساء يعلوها إطار من الفسيفساء تزخرفه طرز مكتوبة، وتجذب أنظارنا الكسوة الخشبية المنقوشة الملونة فوق المحراب.

ويعد المنبر الخشبى الذى يجاور المحراب والذى أمر ببنائه السلطان لاجين واحدا من أجمل المنابر فى جوامع القاهرة وأقدمها

Was the work of some repairs and additions in the era of the Mamluk Sultan Hasmudin to be sold [1297 - 1300] These additions are: Almidhap brokered Whole plate, [and place of the fountain, which was built Vorp unearmarked topped Dome of the basement was the center of the open courtyard, but it burned in 986 m], as well as the minaret Malwiyah, which is similar to a mosque in Samara, Iraq Motawakil, but Motawakil rectangular mosque mosque and son Toulon square format. Whole Palace was connected to the son of Toulon, which was held at the foot of Citadel of Cairo between the current and builders, "Straight Street" and this indicates that the mosque in Old Cairo "Alqtaia." Consists of two parts, one of the mosque is an open courtyard and the other East tiled canopy is the kiss of five corridors and separated by five rows of contracts edged [Baikat] parallel to the kiss, unsustainable "Bdnat" of pay attached to the pillars of the four corners of the dilution Hoavera. High walls, balconies, even some thirteen meters. The number of gates nineteen sections. Cravat in this unique style combined with superior exterior walls as Mitrasson members hold each other's hands, symbolizing Muslims Kalpnian wall. The number of windows tatting plaster the outer wall - which contain non-repetitive decoration, which prevents fatigue and the same scenes - about one hundred and twenty-eight nets, three of which are in the era of Ahmad Ibn Tulun and Baekayaa ages in the Fatimid and Mamluk. Jubair was the son of these windows, which are filled with plaster tatting Fragadtha colored glass called "Sunshades," and this affected a large decoration decorations Samara in Iraq. There are six Mharib mosque, the mihrab, the oldest, who is in which the main dome, a marble-clad groin and above the framework of the mosaic mosaic Tzachrvh models in writing, and attract our attention Kiswa colored wood engraved above the mihrab. The wooden platform adjacent to the mihrab, which is built by the Sultan to be sold and one of the best platforms in the mosques of Cairo and the oldest