regulation of food intake n.
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Regulation of food intake - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Regulation of food intake

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  1. Regulation of food intake

  2. Food intake • Regulation • Endocrine • Adipose tissue • Pancreas • Liver • Muscle • CNS

  3. Critical area of study • Type II diabetes • Obesity • Hormones involved in appetite regulation • Interaction with insulin • Glucose uptake • Triglyceride metabolism

  4. Endocrine factors • Adipose tissue • Leptin • Adiponectin • Resistin • GI tract • Ghrelin

  5. Leptin • Product of ob gene • 16 kDa • No major similarity with other hormones

  6. Produced by differentiated adipocytes • Acts on the CNS • Hypothalamus • Anorectic hormone • Appetite suppression • Acts on endocrine organs • Pancreas • Liver

  7. Interaction with reproductive axis • Starvation • Reduced leptin level • Reduced reproductive efficiency • Suppression of HP-gonadal axis • Interaction between food intake and reproduction (detection of energy adequacy)

  8. Mechanism of action • Leptin receptor • Type I cytokine receptor • Several isoforms • Found throughout body • Leptin binding proteins

  9. Mechanism of action • CNS • Suppression of neuropeptide Y expression in brain • Suppression of appetite

  10. Circulating leptin concentrations • Determined by body fat mass • Secretion regulated by nonhormonal and hormonal factors • Stimulatory • Insulin • Glucocorticoids • Overeating • Inhibitory • Fasting • cAMP • Beta receptor agonists

  11. Clinical significance • Hyperleptinemia • Human obesity • Associated with body mass index • Basal leptin concentrations • Positively correlated with insulin if a person is insulin-sensitive • Not influenced by age, basal glucose concentrations

  12. Eating disorder • Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa • Leptin concentrations relfect BMI • Body fat content • Weight maintenance • Leptin concentrations reflect body fat mass • Weight loss/gain • Sensor of energy imbalance