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ES2002 Business Communication. Intercultural Communication. Definition of culture.

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Es2002 business communication

ES2002 Business Communication

Intercultural Communication


Definition of culture
Definition of culture

“ Culture is the coherent, learned, shared view a group of people has about life’s concerns that ranks what is important, instills attitudes about what things are appropriate, and prescribes behaviour, given that some things have more significance than others.”

Source: Beamer’s & Varner’s Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


ClothingFoodBehaviour

AttitudesValuesBeliefsMeaningsNorms

Photo by Cliff Wassman

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


“ Very often the way others do things is not different out of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

Mole (1996)

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Outline
Outline of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

  • Fundamental cultural orientations

  • Nonverbal communication

  • Different cultural groups

  • Tips for intercultural communication skills

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Fundamental cultural orientations
Fundamental cultural orientations of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

  • How contexting and facesaving affect communication

  • How the individual is viewed in relation to the group

  • How time is perceived

  • How status is accorded

  • How decisions are made

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Contexting and face saving of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

Contexting and face saving

  • High context

    • Low reliance on verbal communication

    • More reliance on context, nonverbal cues, implicit information shared

    • Indirect and rather vague

  • Low context

    • High reliance on verbal communication

    • Less reliance on non-verbal communication

    • Direct, precise, and explicit

Cultural orientations

High context – High face saving

Low context – Low face saving

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Individual / group of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

Individual / group

  • Individualist

    • The individual takes centre stage

    • Independence highly valued

    • A single person can earn credit / blame

  • Collectivist

    • The individual seen as part of the group

    • High degree of interdependence

    • Credit / blame goes to the group

Cultural orientations

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Time of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

Time

  • Monochronic-time cultures

    • High emphasis on schedules, punctuality and promptness

    • Schedules take precedence over interpersonal relations

  • Polychronic-time cultures

    • Time viewed as more fluid and strict schedules not observed

    • Preset schedules are subordinate to interpersonal relations

Cultural orientations

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Status of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

Status

  • Accorded based on individual achievements

    • Organizations less hierarchical

    • Titles used only when relevant to competence

  • Ascribed by virtue of age, family background, profession

    • Organizations more highly hierarchical

    • Extensive use of titles

Cultural Orientations

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Decision making of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

Decision making

  • Discussing points

  • Seeking group consensus

  • Consulting organisations in negotiations

Cultural orientations

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Decision making in meetings
Decision making in meetings of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

  • A “meeting” is a cultural concept.

  • Formal/informal? Personal/professional?

  • Who decides? Top-level executives only or with consultations with all employees?

  • In many corporate meetings, gender relations are also prominent (e.g., male executives make decisions; female executives are the bosses; female participants do not have a voice)

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Non verbal communication
Non-verbal communication of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

  • Body language

    • Posture

    • Head movements

  • Eye contact

  • Laughter

  • Touch

  • Physical space

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Different cultural groups
Different cultural groups of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

IMPORTANT

Statements made mere generalizations

Norms of a culture change

Not all differences in patterns of communication can be explained by national cultures

  • National

  • Ethnic

  • Corporate

  • Religious

  • Gender

  • Socio-economic

  • Profession

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Corporate culture
Corporate culture of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

  • Can national culture completely explain this?

    A Malaysian woman is a Senior Executive in an American multinational company based in Singapore. Educated in Malaysia and the UK, her manner of speaking is polite but straightforward.

  • In a globalized world, corporate culture is usually hybrid

  • Staff are usually exposed to different cultural orientations

  • Lesson: be careful about making simplistic statements.

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


So beware
So, beware! of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

  • Do not stereotype cultures

    For example,

    All Japanese are…

    Americans are…

    She is Malaysian. She must be…

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Conclusion tips
Conclusion: of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”TIPS

  • Develop a sense of cultural awareness.

  • Do away with ethnocentrism.

  • Learn to adapt.

  • Be more tolerant.

  • Listen carefully and empathise.

  • Look beyond the superficial.

  • Do not lapse into your own language while in the presence of others who do not speak it.

  • Take responsibility for the communication.

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


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