Debate Formats and Speaker Responsibilities • Two kinds of academic debate: • Policy Debate • Value Debate • We will be doing debating policy in this class.
Debate Formats • Standard Debate Format • Cross-Examination Debate Format • Lincoln-Douglas Debate Format
Standard Debate Format • Two types of speeches • Constructive speeches (8 min. each) • Rebuttal speeches (4 min. each)
Constructive Speeches • The time is used to: • Build your case • Present your arguments • Present your major points
Rebuttal Speeches • The time is used to: • Refute the opponent’s arguments • Extended your own major arguments
Standard Debate Format • Order of Speeches: • First Affirmative Constructive 8 min. • First Negative Constructive 8 min. • Second Affirmative Constructive 8 min. • Second Negative Constructive 8 min. • First Negative Rebuttal 4 min. • First Affirmative Rebuttal 4 min. • Second Negative Rebuttal 4 min. • Second Affirmative Rebuttal 4 min.
Preparation Time • Debate is extemporaneous. • Only the first affirmative constructive speech can be written out before the debate begins. • The time between speeches used for preparation is called preparation time (prep time).
Preparation Time • It is used for: • Writing down final notes • Gathering your materials • Checking with your teammate • Getting to the podium to speak • Three types of prep time rules
One or Two-Minute Rule • Each speaker is allowed either one or two minutes to prepare each speech • If the speaker takes longer than the one or two minutes, the additional time is subtracted from the speaking time. • Starts from when the previous speaker sits down.
Eight-Minute Rule • The most commonly used in debate rounds. • Each time has a total of 8 minutes. • The timekeeper keeps track of the total minutes left for prep time. • If the eight-minutes have been used up, any prep time is subtracted from the speaking time.
Speaker Strategies and Responsibilities • There are certain responsibilities particular to each speech in a debate.
First Affirmative Constructive • Usually includes everything (i.e. case and plan). • Presents the framework for the rest of the debate. • A good first affirmative constructive helps the whole debate to be better and more interesting.
Content of the 1AC • Be sure to: • Start with a brief introduction that summarizes the affirmatives approach. • State the proposition. • Define the key terms. • Present the justification for change. • Present the plan. • Present the advantages. • Briefly summarize the case.
Outline of a 1AC • Introduction • Statement of the resolution • Definition of terms • Inherency • Significance • Plan • Solvency • Summary
First Negative Constructive • Decide the negative’s philosophy • Choices: • Attack the definition of Terms • Attack the interpretation (Topicality) • Defend the status quo • Attack the significance
Outline of 1NC • Statement of the negative’s philosophy • Definition of negative’s terms • Your attacks • Restate the negative’s philosophy
Second Affirmative Constructive • Purpose is to: • Reestablish what is the affirmative’s position • Refute the arguments of the 1NC • Extend affirmative’s arguments by presenting any remaining constructive materials.
2AC Strategies • Emphasize that the affirmative has met the burden of proof • Remain on the offensive by attacking the negative’s philosophy • Narrow the range of arguments • Add more arguments to weaker areas
Second Negative Constructive • Traditionally this is the speech that deals with attacking the plan. • But still okay to present a new argument against the affirmative’s case.
Attacking the Plan • You can attack the plan by: • Attacking workability • Attacking solvency • Presenting Disadvantages
The Negative Block • The second negative constructive and the first negative rebuttal. • There is a total of 12 uninterrupted minutes for the negative to speak.
Rebuttals • The idea of the rebuttals is not to introduce new lines of arguments but to simply strengthen arguments previously made. This is true for all rebuttals except probably the first affirmative rebuttal since this is the first time it can respond to any arguments made in the 2NC.
Rebuttals • No new lines of arguments • Strengthen previous arguments. • Sometimes okay for 1NR to raise (new) arguments against the plan if 2NC was still arguing case. • Sometimes okay for 1AR to raise new arguments if the 2NC/1NR raised new arguments.
First Negative Rebuttal • Work with the 2NC speaker to cooperate. • Don’t have the 2NC speaker leave nothing for the 1NR speaker to say.
The “Even-If” Argument • A good strategy for the 1NR is to say that even if there is a need to change, the plan is not the right plan. • Doesn’t solve the problem • Has serious disadvantages
First Affirmative Rebuttal • One of the most difficult • Must respond in 4 minutes to 12 minutes of negative arguments. • Must answer all new arguments presented by the 2NC speaker.
Second Negative Rebuttal • Clearly identify the voting issues • The crucial areas where the affirmative has not met their burden of proof. • Strengthen the negative’s position on the voting issues. • Make sure you haven’t left out those issues pursued by your partner!
Second Affirmative Rebuttal • Show that the affirmative has met the burden of proof on all the stock issues. • Specifically address the voting issues raised by the negative. • Refocus on the stronger parts of your case.
Rules • Debate is not a personal attack on your beliefs or individual position. • Heckling, Yelling and Personal remarks will not be tolerated and will result in your grade being lowered. • All arguments are based on FACT not just stuff that sounds good.
Where to Start • Choose a team captain • Maintain discipline and focus of the team • Delegate responsibilities • CAPTAIN WILL NOT SPEAK AT THE DEBATE • Group members • Supply all the information you compiled in your research • Actively participate in the planning process and preparation of opening statements
Objectives for Today • Elect a team leader (remember this person will not speak at the debate) • Decide who will be the four speakers for your group • You may want to have a recorder who can keep track of your arguments and your research • Be ready tomorrow with your research to start writing your first constructive speeches (8 minutes each) – I recommend having group members print their papers and hi-light the best points