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Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting PowerPoint Presentation
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Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting

Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting

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Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting

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  1. Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting 70-270: MCSE Guide to Microsoft Windows XP Professional

  2. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 1) • Set of Windows XP features that ensures the availability of: • User’s data via synchronization • Recovery of personalized settings • Software and application installation and repair

  3. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 2) • User data management: • Using folder redirection, a folder on a user's local machine (i.e. My Documents) can be synchronized with a folder on a network • Local or network versions of modified files are updated on the other location automatically

  4. **** Activity 14-1 **** • Synchronizing Files • http://course.labmentors.com

  5. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 3) • User settings management • Equivalent of a roaming profile • Since a user in a domain network can logon to their personal settings from any machine … • If a computer is unavailable or crashes, the user configurations can be transferred to another machine … • Or even could be used as an alternative to retaining personal settings when upgrading to a new machine

  6. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 4) • Software installation and maintenance • If users inadvertently remove applications or system files, or if their systems crash … • Windows Installer Service (WIS) can be used to rebuild software (applications, updates and even O/S upgrades)

  7. **** Activity 14-2 **** • Download Adobe Acrobat Reader from: • http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html • Install program Adobe Reader and Google Toolbar • Run Control Panel • Select "Add or Remove Programs" applet • Select <Change/Remove> for "Google Toolbar" • Click <Yes> button to confirm (if necessary) • Follow prompts • Close dialog windows

  8. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 1) • The only Windows XP utility for making backups using media: • Tape drives • External hard disks (i.e., network drives) • Zip or Jaz drives • Recordable CD-ROM drives • Logical (partitioned or mapped) drives • (Microsoft IntelliMirror technologies are used only to synchronize to a network folder)

  9. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 2) • To launch the utility select Start menu  Programs  Accessories  System Tools  Backup • The two methods to back up data are the Backup Wizard (default option when Backup is executed) and manual backup: • Click the Advanced Mode hyperlink and the Backup tab to set backup options manually • Or click Wizard Mode hyperlink on Welcome tab in Advanced mode to return to the wizard

  10. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 3) • In Advanced Mode, the Backup utilitymain functions are: • Back up programs and files • Restore programs and files • Create an ASR data set (Automated System Recovery)

  11. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 4) • Options include backing up: • Everything on computer • Just specific files and folders • System State data including system’s boot files, COM settings, and Registry data

  12. Microsoft Backup Utility

  13. Microsoft Backup Utility

  14. **** Activity 14-3 **** • Backup "My Documents" to "F:\" • Delete a file from "My Documents" • Restore files from the backup

  15. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 5) • Select Backup Type tab in the Tools Options… dialog: • Copy backup—backs up all files but does not set off archive bit (not marked as updated) • Normal (or full) backup—backs up all files and sets off archive bit (marked as updated) • Daily backup—backs up only files that have been created or modified the day of the backup (archive bit not set off)

  16. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 6) • Backup Type (con.): • Differential backup—backs up only files that have been created or modified since last full or incremental backup (archive bit not set off) • Incremental backup–backs up only files that have been created or modified since last full or incremental backup (archive bit is set off)

  17. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 7) • Most backup schemes combine the use of: • Weekly full backups … • And daily backups of either type incremental or differential • Incremental daily backups: • Makes daily backup operation run quicker • Requires a longer restore period—restore from last full backup; then perform restores of each incremental backup in order created

  18. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 8) • Differential backups: • Causes a longer and longer backup period each day (because archive bit is left on) • Requires increased storage space on backup media each day • Restore time is greatly reduced in comparison with incremental—restore from last full backup; then perform restores of last differential backup

  19. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 9) • Automated System Recovery (ASR) • Restores essential system files in event of severe system failure • Does not protect personal data or application configuration settings • Creates a backup of only those files essential to the boot process • Media set consists of both: • Backup floppy • One or more backup tapes or other media

  20. **** Activity 14-4 **** • Set up a scheduled backup: • Backup files and settings • My documents and settings • To drive C:\ • Advanced button: • Incremental • Replace the existing backup • Later: Daily (in five minutes)

  21. Preventive Maintenance • Several mechanisms to reduce user problems: • Device Driver Rollback (from Chapter 3) • Reinitializes previous driver (was saved by XP) • Windows File Protection • Automatic Updates and Windows Update (from Chapter 3) • Desktop Cleanup Wizard

  22. Windows File Protection (Page 1) • Ensures that the correct and uncorrupted version of certain operating system core files is retained on system • Files include .sys, .dll, .exe and .ocx files, as well as True Type font files

  23. Windows File Protection (Page 2) • Protects list of sacred files from changes due to application installation, infection from a virus, or human error • Works in the background invisibly to users (in most cases) • Sometimes system may prompt user for reboot

  24. Windows File Protection (Page 3) • If write operation occurs for one of these files, the resulting file is compared to a database of known files … • The replacement files may be stored in WINDOWS\system32\dllcache, the original Windows XP installation disks or a copy, or a network share • If there is a mismatch, the altered file is replaced automatically

  25. Windows File Protection (Page 4) • System File Checker (SFC) tool: • The system software tool that performs the inspection and replacement of monitored files • Usually executed automatically • The "SFC" command also can be executed manually from the command prompt • The command also can be used to purge and rebuild the DLLCACHE folder

  26. Windows File Protection

  27. Desktop Cleanup Wizard • Asks permission to remove unused icons from desktop • Launches automatically every 60 days • Can be disabled: • Select the Display applet from "Control Panel" • Click the <Customize Desktop> button on the Desktop tab • On the General tab turn off the "Run Desktop Cleanup Wizard every 60 days" checkbox

  28. Repairing Windows XP Professional • Options for repairing or restoring computer: • Safe Mode (from Chapter 13) • System Restore • Emergency repair process • Recovery Console • Remote OS installation

  29. System Restore (Page 1) • Can be used to return O/S to previously saved state … • Reverse system configuration settings • Reverse Registry changes • Undo the changes made by installed software • Does not affect personal files or e-mail • Only can be used if system boots

  30. System Restore (Page 2) • Automatically creates restoration points during critical system changes • User also can initiate the creation of a restoration point manually • To run System Restore: • Start  Programs Accessories System Tools System Restore • Controlled and managed through: • System Restore tab of System applet • Setting on/off and amount of memory used

  31. System Restore

  32. Emergency Repair Process (Page 1) • For problems caused by: • Corrupt or missing system files • Startup environment • Partition boot sector • Boot from Windows XP Professional Setup CD (or floppy disk) • Press "R" when prompted to select to Repair Windows XP (do not select reinstall), and "R" again to start emergency repair process

  33. Emergency Repair Process (Page 2) • Select from one of two options: • Fast repair—automatically attempts to repair problems to Registry, system files, boot volume, and startup environment without user interaction • Manual repair—lets user decide to repair the Registry, system files, boot volume, or startup environment

  34. Emergency Repair Process (Page 3) • Reboots automatically if emergency repair process is successful • If unsuccessful it might be necessary to reinstall Windows XP • Probably also means reinstalling applications and updates

  35. Recovery Console (Page 1) • For system administrators and expert users, offers more precise control over troubleshooting and repair process • Password for Administrator account must be entered to logon to Recovery Console • Must be installed from "i386" folder of Windows XP installation disk • Use the command prompt • Type "winnt32 /cmdcons" to install

  36. Recovery Console (Page 2) • Recovery Console also may be run from the installation CD-ROM … • Press <F8> when prompted and select Recovery Console from alternate boot menu

  37. Recovery Console (Page 3) • Select "Microsoft Windows Recovery Console" from list of available operating systems when booting • Type "help" at command prompt for list of available Recovery Console commands

  38. Recovery Console (Page 4) • Commands: • bootcfg—boot file configuration and recovery • chkdsk—checks and reports on status of every sector on disk • disable—to disable a service or driver • enable—to enable or start a service or driver • exit—exit Recovery Console and reboot

  39. Recovery Console (Page 5) • Commands (con.): • fixboot—writes a new partition boot sector onto system partition • fixmbr—repairs the Master Boot Record • systemroot—sets current folder to system root

  40. Recovery Console (Page 6) • Recovery Console often is a better way than the Emergency Restore Process to restore damaged Registry … • Registry files in %systemroot%\Repair come from installation of Windows XP Professional • Any changes made after initial installation are lost when using ERP

  41. Recovery Console (Page 7) • To remove Recovery Console: • In "My Computer" be certain that on View tab of Tools menu → Folder Options: • "Show hidden files and folders" is on • "Hide protected operating system files" is off • In the root directory, delete the \cmdcons folder and the cmldr file • From the "boot.ini" file delete the command C:\CMDCONS\BOOTSECT.DAT="Microsoft Windows Recovery Console" /cmdcons

  42. General Principles of Troubleshooting • Take action to resolve issues at hand as quickly as possible • Troubleshooting • Art and science • Systematically diagnosing and eliminating problems in computer system • Usually fairly tedious process

  43. Computer Information File • Computer information file (CIF) stores detailed information about hardware and software products that make up computer • Not just a single file but an ever-expanding accumulation of manually created data sheets sorted into related groupings • Should be stored in protected area and accessible in event of an emergency • Constructing CIF from scratch is a lengthy process

  44. System Information Tool • Provides a list of: • Installed hardware and software • Details of loaded drivers, and whether or not they are signed • IRQ's that are assigned • Etc. • The starting point for creating a CIF • From Start menu  Programs Accessories System Tools System Information

  45. System Information Tool

  46. **** Activity 15-1 **** • View the System Information dialog • From Start menu  Programs Accessories System Tools System Information • Expand and review Hardware Resources, Components, Software Environment and Internet Settings

  47. Troubleshooting Tools • Troubleshooting tools that are available in Windows XP Professional include: • Event Viewer • Computer Management

  48. Event Viewer (Page 1) • Used to view system messages regarding success and failure of key occurrences • Information includes: • System drivers or service failures • Security problems • Misbehaving applications • Accessed from Administrative Tools in the "Control Panel"

  49. Event Viewer (System Log)

  50. Event Viewer (Page 2) • The logs are: • System log—internal processes including hardware and operating system errors, warnings and general information • Security log—audit events for failed logons, user right alterations, attempted object accesses with sufficient permissions • Application log—application (software) events and alerts • There may be also Directory service, DNS Service, and File Replication Service logs