windows xp fault tolerance and troubleshooting n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting

Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting

67 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting 70-270: MCSE Guide to Microsoft Windows XP Professional

  2. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 1) • Set of Windows XP features that ensures the availability of: • User’s data via synchronization • Recovery of personalized settings • Software and application installation and repair

  3. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 2) • User data management: • Using folder redirection, a folder on a user's local machine (i.e. My Documents) can be synchronized with a folder on a network • Local or network versions of modified files are updated on the other location automatically

  4. **** Activity 14-1 **** • Synchronizing Files •

  5. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 3) • User settings management • Equivalent of a roaming profile • Since a user in a domain network can logon to their personal settings from any machine … • If a computer is unavailable or crashes, the user configurations can be transferred to another machine … • Or even could be used as an alternative to retaining personal settings when upgrading to a new machine

  6. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 4) • Software installation and maintenance • If users inadvertently remove applications or system files, or if their systems crash … • Windows Installer Service (WIS) can be used to rebuild software (applications, updates and even O/S upgrades)

  7. **** Activity 14-2 **** • Download Adobe Acrobat Reader from: • • Install program Adobe Reader and Google Toolbar • Run Control Panel • Select "Add or Remove Programs" applet • Select <Change/Remove> for "Google Toolbar" • Click <Yes> button to confirm (if necessary) • Follow prompts • Close dialog windows

  8. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 1) • The only Windows XP utility for making backups using media: • Tape drives • External hard disks (i.e., network drives) • Zip or Jaz drives • Recordable CD-ROM drives • Logical (partitioned or mapped) drives • (Microsoft IntelliMirror technologies are used only to synchronize to a network folder)

  9. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 2) • To launch the utility select Start menu  Programs  Accessories  System Tools  Backup • The two methods to back up data are the Backup Wizard (default option when Backup is executed) and manual backup: • Click the Advanced Mode hyperlink and the Backup tab to set backup options manually • Or click Wizard Mode hyperlink on Welcome tab in Advanced mode to return to the wizard

  10. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 3) • In Advanced Mode, the Backup utilitymain functions are: • Back up programs and files • Restore programs and files • Create an ASR data set (Automated System Recovery)

  11. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 4) • Options include backing up: • Everything on computer • Just specific files and folders • System State data including system’s boot files, COM settings, and Registry data

  12. Microsoft Backup Utility

  13. Microsoft Backup Utility

  14. **** Activity 14-3 **** • Backup "My Documents" to "F:\" • Delete a file from "My Documents" • Restore files from the backup

  15. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 5) • Select Backup Type tab in the Tools Options… dialog: • Copy backup—backs up all files but does not set off archive bit (not marked as updated) • Normal (or full) backup—backs up all files and sets off archive bit (marked as updated) • Daily backup—backs up only files that have been created or modified the day of the backup (archive bit not set off)

  16. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 6) • Backup Type (con.): • Differential backup—backs up only files that have been created or modified since last full or incremental backup (archive bit not set off) • Incremental backup–backs up only files that have been created or modified since last full or incremental backup (archive bit is set off)

  17. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 7) • Most backup schemes combine the use of: • Weekly full backups … • And daily backups of either type incremental or differential • Incremental daily backups: • Makes daily backup operation run quicker • Requires a longer restore period—restore from last full backup; then perform restores of each incremental backup in order created

  18. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 8) • Differential backups: • Causes a longer and longer backup period each day (because archive bit is left on) • Requires increased storage space on backup media each day • Restore time is greatly reduced in comparison with incremental—restore from last full backup; then perform restores of last differential backup

  19. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 9) • Automated System Recovery (ASR) • Restores essential system files in event of severe system failure • Does not protect personal data or application configuration settings • Creates a backup of only those files essential to the boot process • Media set consists of both: • Backup floppy • One or more backup tapes or other media

  20. **** Activity 14-4 **** • Set up a scheduled backup: • Backup files and settings • My documents and settings • To drive C:\ • Advanced button: • Incremental • Replace the existing backup • Later: Daily (in five minutes)

  21. Preventive Maintenance • Several mechanisms to reduce user problems: • Device Driver Rollback (from Chapter 3) • Reinitializes previous driver (was saved by XP) • Windows File Protection • Automatic Updates and Windows Update (from Chapter 3) • Desktop Cleanup Wizard

  22. Windows File Protection (Page 1) • Ensures that the correct and uncorrupted version of certain operating system core files is retained on system • Files include .sys, .dll, .exe and .ocx files, as well as True Type font files

  23. Windows File Protection (Page 2) • Protects list of sacred files from changes due to application installation, infection from a virus, or human error • Works in the background invisibly to users (in most cases) • Sometimes system may prompt user for reboot

  24. Windows File Protection (Page 3) • If write operation occurs for one of these files, the resulting file is compared to a database of known files … • The replacement files may be stored in WINDOWS\system32\dllcache, the original Windows XP installation disks or a copy, or a network share • If there is a mismatch, the altered file is replaced automatically

  25. Windows File Protection (Page 4) • System File Checker (SFC) tool: • The system software tool that performs the inspection and replacement of monitored files • Usually executed automatically • The "SFC" command also can be executed manually from the command prompt • The command also can be used to purge and rebuild the DLLCACHE folder

  26. Windows File Protection

  27. Desktop Cleanup Wizard • Asks permission to remove unused icons from desktop • Launches automatically every 60 days • Can be disabled: • Select the Display applet from "Control Panel" • Click the <Customize Desktop> button on the Desktop tab • On the General tab turn off the "Run Desktop Cleanup Wizard every 60 days" checkbox

  28. Repairing Windows XP Professional • Options for repairing or restoring computer: • Safe Mode (from Chapter 13) • System Restore • Emergency repair process • Recovery Console • Remote OS installation

  29. System Restore (Page 1) • Can be used to return O/S to previously saved state … • Reverse system configuration settings • Reverse Registry changes • Undo the changes made by installed software • Does not affect personal files or e-mail • Only can be used if system boots

  30. System Restore (Page 2) • Automatically creates restoration points during critical system changes • User also can initiate the creation of a restoration point manually • To run System Restore: • Start  Programs Accessories System Tools System Restore • Controlled and managed through: • System Restore tab of System applet • Setting on/off and amount of memory used

  31. System Restore

  32. Emergency Repair Process (Page 1) • For problems caused by: • Corrupt or missing system files • Startup environment • Partition boot sector • Boot from Windows XP Professional Setup CD (or floppy disk) • Press "R" when prompted to select to Repair Windows XP (do not select reinstall), and "R" again to start emergency repair process

  33. Emergency Repair Process (Page 2) • Select from one of two options: • Fast repair—automatically attempts to repair problems to Registry, system files, boot volume, and startup environment without user interaction • Manual repair—lets user decide to repair the Registry, system files, boot volume, or startup environment

  34. Emergency Repair Process (Page 3) • Reboots automatically if emergency repair process is successful • If unsuccessful it might be necessary to reinstall Windows XP • Probably also means reinstalling applications and updates

  35. Recovery Console (Page 1) • For system administrators and expert users, offers more precise control over troubleshooting and repair process • Password for Administrator account must be entered to logon to Recovery Console • Must be installed from "i386" folder of Windows XP installation disk • Use the command prompt • Type "winnt32 /cmdcons" to install

  36. Recovery Console (Page 2) • Recovery Console also may be run from the installation CD-ROM … • Press <F8> when prompted and select Recovery Console from alternate boot menu

  37. Recovery Console (Page 3) • Select "Microsoft Windows Recovery Console" from list of available operating systems when booting • Type "help" at command prompt for list of available Recovery Console commands

  38. Recovery Console (Page 4) • Commands: • bootcfg—boot file configuration and recovery • chkdsk—checks and reports on status of every sector on disk • disable—to disable a service or driver • enable—to enable or start a service or driver • exit—exit Recovery Console and reboot

  39. Recovery Console (Page 5) • Commands (con.): • fixboot—writes a new partition boot sector onto system partition • fixmbr—repairs the Master Boot Record • systemroot—sets current folder to system root

  40. Recovery Console (Page 6) • Recovery Console often is a better way than the Emergency Restore Process to restore damaged Registry … • Registry files in %systemroot%\Repair come from installation of Windows XP Professional • Any changes made after initial installation are lost when using ERP

  41. Recovery Console (Page 7) • To remove Recovery Console: • In "My Computer" be certain that on View tab of Tools menu → Folder Options: • "Show hidden files and folders" is on • "Hide protected operating system files" is off • In the root directory, delete the \cmdcons folder and the cmldr file • From the "boot.ini" file delete the command C:\CMDCONS\BOOTSECT.DAT="Microsoft Windows Recovery Console" /cmdcons

  42. General Principles of Troubleshooting • Take action to resolve issues at hand as quickly as possible • Troubleshooting • Art and science • Systematically diagnosing and eliminating problems in computer system • Usually fairly tedious process

  43. Computer Information File • Computer information file (CIF) stores detailed information about hardware and software products that make up computer • Not just a single file but an ever-expanding accumulation of manually created data sheets sorted into related groupings • Should be stored in protected area and accessible in event of an emergency • Constructing CIF from scratch is a lengthy process

  44. System Information Tool • Provides a list of: • Installed hardware and software • Details of loaded drivers, and whether or not they are signed • IRQ's that are assigned • Etc. • The starting point for creating a CIF • From Start menu  Programs Accessories System Tools System Information

  45. System Information Tool

  46. **** Activity 15-1 **** • View the System Information dialog • From Start menu  Programs Accessories System Tools System Information • Expand and review Hardware Resources, Components, Software Environment and Internet Settings

  47. Troubleshooting Tools • Troubleshooting tools that are available in Windows XP Professional include: • Event Viewer • Computer Management

  48. Event Viewer (Page 1) • Used to view system messages regarding success and failure of key occurrences • Information includes: • System drivers or service failures • Security problems • Misbehaving applications • Accessed from Administrative Tools in the "Control Panel"

  49. Event Viewer (System Log)

  50. Event Viewer (Page 2) • The logs are: • System log—internal processes including hardware and operating system errors, warnings and general information • Security log—audit events for failed logons, user right alterations, attempted object accesses with sufficient permissions • Application log—application (software) events and alerts • There may be also Directory service, DNS Service, and File Replication Service logs