Mainland and Islands • Southeast Asia consists of two distinct sub-regions: • Asian Mainland • Islands
Peninsulas and Islands • Two Peninsulas • Indochinese Peninsula • Malay Peninsula
Archipelagos • Philippines • 7,000 islands • Indonesia • Over 13,000 Islands
Rivers and Coastlines • Rivers: • Mekong River • Begins in China and crosses several Southeast Asian nations • Forms a boundary between Myanmar and Laos and between Laos and Thailand
Landforms of Oceania • Estimate: more than 20,000 island not including Philippines and Indonesia. • New Zealand • Australia • Micronesia • Melanseia
Oceania’s Many Islands • High Islands • created by Volcanoes • Low Islands (Atolls) • created by coral reefs
New Zealand • Two Islands • North Island • Hilly mountains • Volcanic plateau • Fertile farmland • Forests • rivers • South Island • Southern Alps • 360 glaciers • Forests • rivers
Australia • Smallest continent on earth • Great Dividing Range • Few Rivers • Outback • Great Barrier Reef • 1,250 mile chain of more than 2,500 reefs and islands • 400 species of coral • Tasmania
Antarctica • Mountains • Transantarctic Mountains • East Antarctic Plateau • Technically a desert
Neutral Antarctica • Antarctica is the largest supply of fresh water in the world. • Many geologists believe there is a wealth of mineral resources below the ice. • In 1991, 26 nations agreed not to mine Antarctica for 50 years.
Climate and Vegetation • Tropical Climate Regions • Myanmar • Thailand • Vietnam • Oceania • Characterized by high temperatures, over 100 -200” of rain per year
Wet and Dry Seasons Myanmar Thailand Laos Cambodia Vietnam Characterized by wet and dry monsoon seasons. Constant hot temperatures, rainfall varies with season. Landforms affect precipitation such as mountains.
Moderate Climate Regions Australia New Zealand Characterized by bands of varied moderate climate zones such as humid subtropical and Marine West Coast
Hot and Cold Deserts Australia (hot) 1/3 of Australia is desert Antarctica (cold) Characterized by less than 10” of rainfall a year
Human-Environment Interaction • Navigating the Pacific • Pacific Islanders relied on the stars as a guide but they made charts out of sticks and shells • Voyaging canoes were developed with double hulls to allow the boats to carry a heavy load and remain stable in the open water. • For use in lagoons, the Pacific Islanders developed outrigger canoes to help balance the canoe.
Invasion of Rabbits • In 1859, Thomas Austin released 24 rabbits in Australia because he wanted to be able to hunt rabbits as it was an English Tradition. • As a result, the rabbit population grew exponentially . One pair of rabbit alone produced 184 descendants in one year. There were no natural predators in Australia to control the population. By 1900 there were over 1 billion rabbits in Australia
Control Measures • The rabbits began to destroy crops and wiped out native plants. Other native animals became endangered as their food sources were depleted • In order to control the rabbits, the brought in foxes but the introduced foxes threatened the natural wildlife as well as domestic animals.
Rabbit Rebound • The government acted by infecting the rabbits with a contagious disease that proved fatal to 90% of the rabbit population but over time, the surviving rabbits developed an immunity to the disease and their population quickly rebounded.
Nuclear Testing • In the 1940s the United States conducted nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands. • The Bikini Atoll was the designated test site. • The U.S. removed 167 inhabitants and conducted over 60 nuclear tests.
Long Term Effects • The testing vaporized several small islands and contaminated the entire area with high levels of radiation. • In the 1960s, the U.S. government declared the Bikini Atoll safe for human habitation however, after the people moved back, many became ill or died. • In 1978, doctors discovered dangerous levels of radiation ins the islanders bodies and they were again removed from the islands