agriculture n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Agriculture PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Agriculture

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 49

Agriculture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 258 Views
  • Uploaded on

Agriculture. First Agricultural Revolution Second Agricultural Revolution Green Revolution (Third Agricultural Revolution). Prehistoric Man. Hunter gather society Nomadic Temperate environment Cyclic Movement Migratory. Fire. Domesticated 500,000 ???? tools. First Ag Rev.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Agriculture


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Agriculture First Agricultural Revolution Second Agricultural Revolution Green Revolution (Third Agricultural Revolution)

    2. Prehistoric Man • Hunter gather society • Nomadic • Temperate environment • Cyclic Movement • Migratory

    3. Fire • Domesticated 500,000 ???? • tools

    4. First Ag Rev • Plant domestication • Animal domestication • Use of fire

    5. Plant Domestication • Gather seeds • Irrigation • Fertilizer • Cultivate • Clear land (fire) • 12,000 years ago or less

    6. Plant Domestication • Slash and Burn • Swidden • Grindstones • Pestle and Mortar • Storage

    7. Problems • No crop rotation • Wear the land out • Move on to new land • Lack of permanent settlements

    8. Plants

    9. Animal Domestication • Young • Garbage • Fire • Protection

    10. Cultural Hearths • Food surplus • Social stratification • Specialization • Urban hierarchy

    11. Development • Governments • Religion • Arts • Music • Architecture • Medicine

    12. Cultural Hearths • Mesopotamia • Nile Valley • Indus Valley • Wei-Huang Valley • Ganges Valley • Mesoamerica • West Africa • Andean America

    13. Cultural Hearths • Fresh water • Temperate areas • Land was diverse • Different types of plants • Seasons allowed for different growth

    14. Cultural Hearths • Began as egalitarian societies • Hierarchy developed • Trade within a functional region • Sedentary societies

    15. Cultural Diffusion • Governments • Religion • Arts • Music • Architecture • Medicine

    16. Independent Invention • Inventions in different places at different times without any knowledge of the other. No diffusion.

    17. Independent Invention • Example - metallurgy • Fire heated rocks • Melted ores • Tools, weapons

    18. Empire Building • Some societies became so stratified, they could have military. • Control other lesser developed areas

    19. Empire Building • Grew in power by taking resources of others • Cultural diffusion

    20. Second Ag Rev • Develop machines that do the work of many people • Too many without ag work • Move to urban areas • Work in factories

    21. Second Ag Rev • Factories make machines for farmers • Larger farms, fewer farmers • More to urban areas • More factories, larger machines

    22. Second Ag Rev • Fertilizers • Drainage • Irrigation • Fence • Breading

    23. Agricultural/Industrial Spiral • Ag input increase • Fewer agricultural workers needed • More urban dwellers • Need jobs • Work in factories • Factories make better farm machines • Fewer Ag workers needed

    24. Von Thunen • German economist • Agricultural Concentric Circles • mid 1800’s • Wrote The Isolated State

    25. Von Thunen • Thunen’s model: the black dot represents a city; 1 (white) dairy and market gardening; 2 (green) forest for fuel; 3 (yellow) grains and field crops; 4 (red) ranching; the outer, dark green area represents wilderness where agriculture is not profitable

    26. Von Thunen made a model • Exceptions

    27. Von Thunen made a model • Exceptions • Isotropic plain • No rivers • No mountains • All travel equal • No other settlements • All land the same • Government policies

    28. What is the use? • The model could predict agricultural location. • Can it predict location today?

    29. Have you read: Getting Real About the High Price of Cheap Food • If you have, read it again. • If you have not read it twice. • We will read it a third time after we end the Green Revolution. • Read the Time Article http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1917726,00.html

    30. Green Revolution History Aspects Results Future

    31. History of Green Revolution • Mexico 1945 • Need wheat for the rapidly growing population • India 1961 starvation • Rice

    32. History of Green Revolution • Norman Borlaug began the ideas. • Term “Green Revolution” by Gaud of USAID in 1968.

    33. History of Green Revolution • Philippines starvation • Rice • Africa 1980’s • Population growth and political instability

    34. Aspects • Genetically modified seeds • Shorter stems, chemical pesticides, chemical fertilizers, better irrigation • Techniques

    35. Aspects • Very expensive • Need government support • Roads • Storage • Wells

    36. Aspects • Must have government stability • Soil • Climate • Money

    37. Aspects • Finance and research • Rockefeller Foundation • Ford Foundation

    38. Results of the Green Revolution • Mexico • 1943 imported 1/2 wheat • 1956 self sufficient • 1964 exported wheat

    39. Results of the Green Revolution • India • IR8 semi-dwarf rice • Price of rice $550/ton in 1970 • Price of rice $200/ton in 2001 • Export 4.5 mil ton in 2006

    40. Results of the Green Revolution • Philippines 1966 • IR8 rice like India • 3.7 to 7.7 mil tons in 20 yr

    41. Results of the Green Revolution • Africa experienced very little success 1970’s. • Insecurity, lack of infrastructure, corruption, lack of cooperation • Natural limits, water and soil

    42. Future of the Green Revolution • Yield increases leveled off in mid 1980’s • Petro chemicals costs increases • Chemical fert, pest, and herb damage the ecosystem

    43. Future of the Green Revolution • Fert - runoff makes algee grow, too much oxygen, choke out fish • Herb - eliminate plant diversity • Pest - eliminate insect diversity • All exspensive

    44. Future of the Green Revolution • Genetically altered plants mutate others (roundup ready corn) • Loss of diversity of food

    45. Future of the Green Revolution • Neo-Malthusian theory • Sustainability • Carrying capacity • Time article

    46. Future of the Green Revolution • Monocultures - lack of diversity in diet • Socioeconomic - poor cannot afford to farm.

    47. Future of the Green Revolution • Globalization • Larger farms, fewer farmers • Poor move to cities • Work in foreign owned factories • Rich richer, poor poorer