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Ethnobotanical surveys. Roeland Kindt. Outline. What is ethnobotany Rapid or in-depth surveys Herbarium specimens Selection of informants Estimating the completeness of surveys Local classification systems Bioprospecting. What is ethnobotany. interactions of people and plants

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • What is ethnobotany
  • Rapid or in-depth surveys
  • Herbarium specimens
  • Selection of informants
  • Estimating the completeness of surveys
  • Local classification systems
  • Bioprospecting
what is ethnobotany
What is ethnobotany
  • interactions of people and plants
  • biological ethnobotany: economic botany (species, local names, uses)
  • anthropological ethnobotany: cultural context (holistic)
rapid or in depth surveys
Rapid or in-depth surveys
  • Rapid: PRA, planning
  • In-depth: holistic, statistically sound
    • herbarium specimens
    • use
    • classification systems
    • environment, people and interactions
    • phonetic
    • bioprospecting
    • economic validation
herbarium specimens
Herbarium specimens
  • Botanical identity
  • Fieldpress: frame, straps, newspaper, blotting paper, ventilators
  • Field notebook: label information, local identification (name, smell, taste, exudates, bark characterististics, charcoal, …)
  • Plant dryer?
  • Voucher: all parts (fertile), presentation (fill)
  • Duplicates for herbaria
  • Newspapers and time
selection of informants
Selection of informants
  • As for PRA: random (populations), targeted (specialists)
  • Avoid bias (season, location)
  • Local specialist user groups
    • living specimens (herbarium?)
    • context
    • permanent forest plots
estimate completeness
Estimate completeness
  • Breath: categories surveyed/total
  • Depth: Σ (subcategories surveyed/total) / total
  • Replication: number of samples / total
  • floristic or ethnofloristic categories
  • stop when breath and depth remain the same, while replication is sufficient
local classification systems
Local classification systems
  • plant names
    • primary name (wattle)
    • secondary name (black wattle)
    • complex primary name (peppertree)
  • “I don’t know”, “flower”, “fruit”
  • under- or overdifferentiation
  • Local specialists
  • parallel classification systems (general vs. medicinal)
bioprospection
Bioprospection
  • Potential
    • 60 % top 150 prescription drugs
    • 5-15 % of 250-500 K plant spp. sampled
    • 1 / 5-10 K molecules screened drug
  • But:
    • micro-organisms, marine, insects, animal and human genetics, bioinformatics
    • more focus on development of screens to use on molecular libraries
bioprospection 2
Bioprospection (2)
  • Ethnobotanical surveys more successful in detecting biological activity
    • but: screens not always available
  • IPR
    • but: only half of pharmaceutical companies use ethnobotanical info, and 80% only from literature searches, mainly after detection
  • Alternative: confirm activity of local medicine and provide feedback (domestication)
ethnobotany and tree domestication
Ethnobotany and tree domestication
  • Uses and management
  • Priority setting
  • Local classification
  • Validation (market surveys)
  • Participatory approach to domestication (selection)