Chronic kidney disease. Alternative Names Kidney failure - chronic Renal failure - chronic Chronic renal insufficiency Chronic kidney failure Chronic kidney disease. KIDNEY FAILURE AND KIDNEY DISEASE. KIDNEY FAILURE
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Kidney failure - chronic
Renal failure - chronic
Chronic renal insufficiency
Chronic kidney failure
Chronic kidney disease
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time. Clinically, this is often measured to determine renal function. Compare to filtration fraction.
The normal ranges of GFR, adjusted for body surface area, are:
Males: 70 ± 14 mL/min/m2
Females: 60 ± 10 mL/min/m2
GFR can increase due to hypoproteinemia because of the reduction in plasma oncotic pressure. GFR can also increase due to constriction of the efferent arteriole but decreases due to constriction of the afferent arteriole.
Moderate reduction in GFR (30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2)
Stage 4 CKD
Severe reduction in GFR (15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2)
Stage 5 CKD
Established kidney failure (GFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, or permanent renal replacement therapy (RRT)
Renal artery stenosis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Polycystic kidney disease
Kidney stones and
Calcification of the left coronary artery in a patient with chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis as seen on a computerized tomography (CT) scan. The extensive deposition of mineral (arrowed) results in a radio-opaque vessel with a density similar to that of bone
Uremic syndrome consists of an array of complex symptoms and signs that occur when advanced kidney failure prompts the malfunction of virtually every organ system. However, the onset of uremia is slow and insidious, beginning with rather nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, weakness, insomnia, and a general feeling of being unwell. Patients may lose their appetite and complain of morning nausea and vomiting. Eventually, signs and symptoms of multisystem failure are evident.