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Basic Geometry. Vocabulary Review. Plane and Solid Figures. Plane figure – a plane figure has just 2 dimensions – length and width. Solid figure – a solid figure has 3 dimensions – length, width, and height. Solid Figures. Face – each flat surface of a solid figure

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Basic geometry

Basic Geometry

Vocabulary Review


Plane and solid figures
Plane and Solid Figures

  • Plane figure – a plane figure has just 2 dimensions – length and width.

  • Solid figure – a solid figure has 3 dimensions – length, width, and height.


Solid figures
Solid Figures

  • Face – each flat surface of a solid figure

  • Edge – a line segment where 2 faces meet on a solid figure.

  • Vertex – “a corner” – where 3 or more edges meet. The plural form of vertex is “vertices.”



Polygons
Polygons

  • Polygon – a polygon is a closed plane figure made up of line segments. Each line segment is a side.


Polygons know your prefixes
Polygons – Know Your Prefixes!

  • “Tri” – means 3 – a triangle has 3 sides.

  • “Quad” – means 4 – a quadrilateral has 4 sides.

  • “Penta” – means 5 – a pentagon has 5 sides.

  • “Hexa” – means 6 – a hexagon has 6 sides.

  • “Octa” – means 8 – an octagon has 8 sides.

  • “Nona” – means 9 – a nonagon has 9 sides.

  • “Deca” – means 10 – a decagon has ten sides.


Points lines line segments and rays
Points, Lines, Line Segments, and Rays

  • Point – an exact location in space.

  • Line – a straight path of points that goes on and on in two directions.

  • Line segment – a part of a line. It has 2 endpoints.

  • Ray – part of a line. It has one endpoint and continues on and on in only one direction.


Angles
Angles

  • Right angle – has a square corner

  • Acute angle – less than a right angle

  • Obtuse angle – more than a right angle.

  • Straight angle – forms a straight line.


Lines
Lines

  • Parallel lines – never intersect.

  • Intersecting lines – lines that cross through the same point.

  • Perpendicular lines – lines that form right angles where they intersect each other.


Triangles
Triangles

  • We learned that there are 2 ways to classify (or group) triangles.

  • One way is to classify (or group) triangles by the length of their sides.

  • The second way is to classify (or group) them is by their angles.

  • Length of sides – Equilateral, isosceles, or scalene.

  • By their angles – right, acute, or obtuse.


Equilateral triangles
Equilateral Triangles

  • Equilateral triangles – all 3 sides have the same length.


Isosceles triangle
Isosceles Triangle

  • Isosceles triangle – 2 of the sides have the same length. You can see that the base (or bottom) of the triangle is shorter than the 2 sides. However, the 2 sides are the same length.


Scalene triangle
Scalene Triangle

  • Scalene triangle – none of the 3 sides are the same length.


Right triangle
Right Triangle

  • Right Triangle – 1 angle of the triangle is a right angle.


Acute triangle
Acute Triangle

  • Acute triangle – all 3 angles of the triangle are acute angles.

  • Remember – if all 3 sides are the same length (equilateral), the triangle is automatically an acute triangle!


Obtuse triangle
Obtuse Triangle

  • Obtuse triangle – if one of the angles of the triangle makes an obtuse angle, the triangle is an obtuse triangle.


Quadrilaterals
Quadrilaterals

  • Quadrilaterals can also be classified (or grouped) by their angles or their pairs of sides!

  • Remember , quad means 4! So we are talking about 4 sided figures!


Rectangle
Rectangle

  • Rectangle – there are 4 right angles!


Square
Square

  • Square – there are 4 right angles and all sides are the same length.


Trapezoid
Trapezoid

  • Trapezoid – There is only one pair of parallel sides.


Parallelogram
Parallelogram

  • Parallelogram – opposite sides are parallel.


Rhombus
Rhombus

  • Rhombus – opposite sides are parallel AND all 4 sides are the same length.


Circles
Circles

  • Circles – we learned that circles are different from other plane figures because they have no sides.

  • A circles is a closed plane figure made of all the points in the same distance from a point called the center.



Radius
Radius

  • Radius – is any line that segment that connects the center to a point on the circle.


Diameter
Diameter

  • Diameter – is any line segment that connects two points on the circle and passes through the center.


Chord
Chord

  • Chord – is any line segment that connects two points on a circle.


Circumference of a circle
Circumference of a Circle

  • Circumference – the distance around the outside of a circle.

  • The circumference of a circle is calculated by multiplying pi (3.14) times the diameter of the circle.


Congruent
Congruent

  • Congruent – same shape, same size.


Slide translation
Slide (Translation)

  • Slide (translation) – moves a figure in a straight direction.


Flip reflection
Flip (Reflection)

  • Flip (reflection) – a figure gives its mirror image.


Turn rotation
Turn (Rotation)

  • Turn (rotation) – moves a figure around a point.


Symmetry
Symmetry

  • Symmetry – when a figure can be folded into two congruent halves. *Means one half can lay perfectly over the other half in an exact match.

  • line of symmetry


Similar
Similar

  • Similar – same shape, but may or may not have the same size! *If items are congruent, they are automatically similar. However, just because items are similar, doesn’t mean they are automatically congruent.


Perimeter
Perimeter

  • Perimeter – the distance around the outside of a figure.

  • Just add the length of all sides together to calculate the perimeter.

  • Real world use of perimeter – building a fence.


Area

  • Area – the number of square units needed to cover the region inside a figure.

  • Multiply the length x width to find the area of a figure.

  • Real world use of area – flooring/carpet.

  • Remember – use “square” in your answer. 32 sq. in.


Volume
Volume

  • Volume – the number of CUBIC units needed to fill a solid figure.

  • Multiply the length x width x height to calculate the volume.

  • Real world of volume – Shopping for refrigerator or freezers. Shipping companies like UPS or FedEx.

  • Remember to use “CUBIC” in your answer. 48 cubic inches.


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