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A Study of Water Resources in Zimbabwe. Water Scarcity in Africa. Catherine Schoeninger and Danielle Yunker. http://www.bobjanet.demon.co.uk/urchin/4life/zimm.jpg. Welcome to Africa. Current Conditions Decline in water resources Insufficient food Sanitation issues

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water scarcity in africa
A Study of Water Resources in Zimbabwe

Water Scarcity in Africa

Catherine Schoeninger and Danielle Yunker

http://www.bobjanet.demon.co.uk/urchin/4life/zimm.jpg

welcome to africa
Welcome to Africa
  • Current Conditions
      • Decline in water resources
      • Insufficient food
      • Sanitation issues
      • Extreme, unpredictable weather
  • 300 million people affected
  • What are the effects of water scarcity in Africa?

http://www.pewfellowships.org/resources/stories/zimbabwe_images/main_zimbabwe.jpg

zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
  • Natural Adversity
    • Population density
    • Climatic conditions
    • Landlocked geographic location
  • All lead to water supply problems

http://www.unido-aaitpc.org/unido-aaitpc/new1/images/map_zimbabwe.gif

high population density
High Population Density
  • Overcrowding adds to strain on resources
      • Housing
        • Multiple families in close proximity
        • No running water
      • Communal Well
        • Women and children fetch water
      • Communal Facilities
        • Designed for 8 people, now shared by over 50 people

http://www.ministrytozimbabwe.com/woman%20carring%20water.jpg

sanitation issues
Sanitation Issues
  • Stem from overpopulation and inefficient infrastructure
      • Toilet
        • Same drain as shower
        • Blockages from use of newspaper as toilet paper
      • Pipe system
        • Bursts
        • Slow repair time
      • Contaminated water
        • Sakubva River
        • Children’s infected play area

http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0301.html

health risks
Health Risks
  • Observed at Zimbabwean Health Clinics
    • Daily patient increase
    • Stem from contact with contaminated water
    • Specific diseases include:
      • Tuberculosis
      • Cholera

http://www.open2.net/theservice/new_nurses/images/nurse_pt.jpg

http://web.mit.edu/basch/www/images/red-cross.gif

climate conditions
Climate Conditions
  • 3 distinct seasons
      • Ranging from hot to cool and wet to dry
  • Unpredictable floods and droughts
  • Annual Average rainfall is 685 mm
    • 300-500 mm can come in one month
  • Difficult to plan crop cycle

http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0110.html

agriculture
Agriculture
  • Agricultural nation
  • Inconsistent harvests
      • Leads to malnourishment
      • Struggle for financial stability

http://www.peopleandplanet.net/files/Zimbabwe%20farmers_Emmanuel%20KoroPYyJQD.jpg

http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0125.html

http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0213.html

possible solutions
Possible Solutions
  • Improved Infrastructure
  • Solar Stills
  • Conservation efforts
  • Spreading awareness

http://www.villagehealth.org/Dsc00404.jpg

infrastructure
Infrastructure
  • International
    • Necessary because they are landlocked
    • Expand current system
  • National
    • Improve and increase existing system
  • Drawbacks
    • Need international cooperation
    • Leakage
    • Expensive – small countries can’t afford

http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/leak/photo10b.jpg

solar stills
Solar Stills
  • Effective way to desalinize and purify water
  • Produces clean drinking water

http://www.geda.org.in/solar/so_slr_still.htm

http://www.i4at.org/surv/sstill.htm

water cycle
Water Cycle
  • Operates on water cycle properties

http://www.i4at.org/surv/sstill.htm

analysis of solar stills
Analysis of Solar Stills

Easy procedure

Cost effective

Dependent on abundant sunshine

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

http://www.borderpact.org/Grants%20Awardees%201999/Region%203/Images/stills1.jpg

conservation
Conservation
  • Efforts
      • Improved management
      • Refined infrastructure
        • Dependent on financial means

http://www.capecairo.com/botswana/CCbotszim/mekoro.jpg

spreading awareness
Spreading Awareness
  • Advertising water conservation
          • Simple
          • Inexpensive

http://us.news2.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/afp/20060406/capt.sge.gum86.060406222759.photo00.photo.default-380x252.jpg

slide16
Questions???

http://epederstad.k-nettet.com/main/graphics/uploaded/1660/thumb_zimbabwe%20m.jpg

references
References
  • “AFRICA: Water management essential to break poverty”. OxResearch. Oxford. 17 March 2003.

ProQuest Database. 15 February 2006.

  • Anonymous. “Africa with no rain, or too much”. The Economist. London. 13 December 1997. Volume 345, Issue 8047;  page 39. ProQuest Database. 15 February 2006.
  • Mansell, M.G., and Hussey, S.W. 2005. “An investigation of flows and losses within the alluvial sands of ephemeral rivers in Zimbabwe”. 314 (1-4): 192-203. Web of Knowledge Database. 13 February 2006.
  • Manzungu, E., and Machiridza R. 2005. “An analysis of water consumption and prospects for implementing water demand management at household level in the City of Harare, Zimbabwe”. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 30 (11-16): 925-934. Web of Knowledge Database. 13 February 2006.
  • Mukheli, A., Mosupye, G., and Swatuk, LA. “Is the Pungwe water supply project a solution to water accessibility and sanitation problems for the households of Sakubva, Zimbabwe”? Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 27 (11-22): 723-732. Web of Knowledge Database. 13 February 2006.
  • Rijsberman, F.R. “Water scarcity: fact or fiction?”. 80 (1-3): 5-22. 2006. Web of Knowledge Database. 17 February 2006.
  • “Solar Stills”. Gujarat Energy Development Agency. 2003. 21 March 2006. http://www.geda.org.in/solar/so_slr_still.htm
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