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Standards for e learning

Standards for e-learning

An overview: definitions, genealogy, existing standards and standards in progress

Bernard Blandin

A standard is
A standard is…

"a document, established by consensus, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context" (ISO/IEC Guide 2, 2004)

Bernard Blandin

Types of standards

Reference documents


International (ISO, IEC, IEEE, ITU)

European (EN)

National (AFNOR, BSI, DIN, ANSI…)





Code of Practice

Quality charters

Conformance evaluation

Third Party Evaluation

Accreditation (Technical competency)

Certification (Conformance to a Standard, to criteria…)


Commitment to a COP, to a charter

Commitment to a Quality approach

“prescriptive strength”

Types of standards

Bernard Blandin

Creation of a standard
Creation of a standard

Specifications, tests, then

creation of a standard by a community

The market imposes the standard

The standard is proposed to a National Body

The standard is proposed to CEN

National Standard

“De Facto” Standard

The standard is proposed to ISO

European Standard

ISO Standard

Bernard Blandin

The world of standards





Ballot Resolution Meeting

Disposition of Comments


Working Groups

The world of standards


Common Principle










Progression of the document


Bernard Blandin

Who creates specifications in e learning
Who creates specifications in e-learning?

  • Professional Associations

    • Ex: IEEE(« Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers »)

  • Companies Consortia

    • Ex: AICC(« Aviation Industry CBT Committee »)

  • Collaborative projects Consortia

    • Ex: IMS(Educause – USA)

    • Ex: ADL-SCORM(Advanced Distributed Learning – USA)

    • Ex: ARIADNE(European project)

Bernard Blandin

Genealogy of e learning standards
Genealogy of e-learning standards










Proprietary solutions


EU Mandate

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E learning standards

E-Learning standards

Standards and Recommendations (DCMI, LOM, AICC, SCORM, IMS-LD)

Bernard Blandin

What is the dublin core
















What is the « Dublin Core » ?

The « Dublin Core Metadata Initiative » (DCMI) proposed the first set of metadata in 1995

Bernard Blandin

What are the lom
What are the LOM ?

  • A set of metadata to describe Learning resources adopted in 2002 by IEEE (IEEE 1484.12.1)

  • The LOM are divided into 9 categories

    • General

    • Lifecycle

    • Meta-metadata

    • Technical

    • Educational

    • Rights

    • Relation

    • Annotation

    • Classification

Bernard Blandin

Lom characteristics
LOM characteristics

  • The Dublin Core fields are part of LOM data elements

  • In principle, LOM should be used as they are, with data elements names and values in English

  • In practice, there are many LOM National profiles, with the names and values of data elements translated, and often comprising extra elements

  • National profiles of LOM are incompatible with the original IEEE LOM

Bernard Blandin

What is aicc
What is AICC ?

  • A set of recommendations and technical reports

  • The AICC Guidelines and Recommendations (AGR) deal with

    • Hardware (AGR002), peripheral devices (AGR005)

    • Platforms Interoperability (AGR006 et AGR010), content exchange (AGR007)

    • Medias: audio (AGR003) and video (AGR008)

    • Interfaces: Windows (AGR004) and icons (AGR009)

  • Technical reports detail recommendations and certification procedures

  • Bernard Blandin

    Aicc characteristics
    AICC Characteristics

    • The fact that all Recommendations are implemented is not verifiable

    • Only Recommendations on Interoperability are verifiable and testable

    • Therefore only AGR006, AGR007, AGR010 can be certified

    Bernard Blandin

    What is scorm
    What is SCORM ?

    Bernard Blandin

    Scorm characteristics
    SCORM Characteristics

    • It is a set of specifications dealing with:

      • The way to assemble resources

      • Paths allowed (navigation between resources)

      • Information interchange between resources and the LMS

  • SCORM 1.2 and SCORM 2004 are not compatible

  • Conformance to SCORM, to-day, means SCORM 2004 certification…

  • Bernard Blandin

    Ims ld uml diagram level a
    IMS – LD (UML Diagram Level A)

    Bernard Blandin

    Example description
    Example (description)

    Bernard Blandin

    Example activity diagram
    Example (activity diagram)

    Bernard Blandin

    E learning standards1

    E-Learning standards

    The International Standards published and in progress

    Bernard Blandin

    Iso iec jtc1 sc36 activities march 2006
    ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 Activities (March 2006)

    • SC36/WG1 -- Vocabulary

      • ISO/IEC 2382-36, Information Technology Vocabulary -- Part 36: LET Apr-2001, 03:CD1, 04:CD2, 05:CD3

      • ISO/IEC 19781-1: ITLET -- Registry -- Part 1: Registry content Feb-2003, 03:CD1

      • ISO/IEC 19781-2: ITLET -- Registry -- Part 2: Registration authority process Feb-2003, 03:CD1

    • SC36/WG2 -- Collaborative Technology

      • ISO/IEC 19778-1: ITLET -- Collaborative Technology -- Cooperative Workplace Apr-2001, 02:CD1

      • ISO/IEC 19779-1: ITLET -- Collaborative Technology -- A2A Communication Apr-2001, 05:Outline WD1

      • ISO/IEC 19780-1: ITLET -- Collaborative Technology -- L2L Interaction Scheme. Apr-2001, 03:CD1, 05:CD2

    • SC36/WG3 -- Participant Information

      • ISO/IEC 24703: Information Technology -- Participant identifiers Aug-2001, 01:CD1, 02:FCD, 04:IS

      • ISO/IEC 19787: ITLET -- Participant performance information Jan-2003, 03: CD1, 04:CD2

      • ISO/IEC 24726: ITLET -- Description of performance metrics Jan-2003,Oct-2005: withdrawn

      • ISO/IEC xxxxx: ITLET -- Description of language capabilities Feb-2004, Mar-2006: Withdrawn

      • ISO/IEC xxxxx: ITLET -- Conceptual model for competencies and related terms Oct-2005 PDTR

    • SC36/WG4 -- Management and Delivery

      • ISO/IEC 19783: ITLET -- Management and delivery -- FW DMs and binding Jul-2002, 04:withdrawn

      • ISO/IEC 19788: ITLET -- Metadata for Learning Resources Jul-2003, 05:WD1

    • SC36/WG5 -- Quality Assurance and Descriptive Frameworks

      • ISO/IEC 19796: ITLET -- Quality Management, Assurance and Metrics Jul-2003, 03:CD1, 05:IS (Part 1), 06: CD1(Part 2-3-4)

      • NP Ballot For: ITLET -- Descriptive framework for LET Mar-2000,04:NP failed,05:renounced

    • SC36/WG6 -- International Standardized Profiles (ISP)

      • ISO/IEC 24725: ITLET -- Specification and use of extensions and profiles [TR] Feb-2004, 05:withdrawn

      • ISO/IEC 24725-2: ITLET -- Profiles of standards and specifications -- REL Mar-2005, 03:PDISP, 05:FPDISP

      • ISO/IEC 24725-x: ITLET -- Framework and Taxonomy of PSS May-2005, 05:CD1

    • SC36/WG7 -- Culture/Language/Human-Functioning Activities

      • ISO/IEC 19786: ITLET -- Participant accommodation information Jan-2003, 04:CD2, 06: CD3

      • ISO/IEC 24751: ITLET -- Individualized Adaptability and Accessibility in E-LET Feb-2005, 05:3 WDs for 3 Parts


    New 

    Bernard Blandin

    The actors in iso iec jtc1 sc36 in march 2006
    The actors in ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 in March 2006

    • SC36 Secretariat: David Hyde BSI/UK (February 2006)SC36 Chair is Bruce People (USA) – 22 Participating Members, 5 Observing Members

    • New WG1 Convener: David Clemis (Canada)

      • Editors: Jon Mason (Australia) for ISO/IEC 2382-36 and Frank Farance (USA) for ISO/IEC 19781

    • WG2 Convener: Toshio Okamoto (Japan)

      • Editors: Kiyoshi Hara for ISO/IEC 19778 CW, Co-Editors In Sook Lee and Tae In Han (Korea) for ISO/IEC 19779 A2A, Co-Editors Akihiko Koga (Japan) and Norm Friesen (Canada) for ISO/IEC 19780 CLC

    • New WG3 Convener: Bernard Blandin (France)

      • Editors: Frank Farance (USA) for ISO/IEC 24703 and ISO/IEC 19787, Co-Editors Bernard Blandin (France) and Simone Laughton (Canada) for ISO/IEC 24763

    • New WG4 Convener: Gilles Gauthier (Canada)

      • Co-Editors: Yolaine Bourda (France) and Shi Yuan Chun (China) for ISO/IEC 19788

    • WG5 Acting Convener: Christian Stracke (Germany) (call for new convener spring 2006)

      • Co-Editors: Jan Pawlowski (Germany) for all parts of 19796, Tae-In Han (Korea) for 19796-2, Kenji Hirata (Japan) for 19796-3, Duk Hoon Kwak (Korea) 19796-4

    • WG6 Co-Conveners: Yang Zongkai (China) and Prof. Zhu Zhiting (China)

      • Editors: Li Zheng (China) and Cheng Wenqing (China) for ISO/IEC 24725-1

    • WG7 Convener: Erlend Overby (Norway)

      • Editors: Frank Farance (USA) for ISO/IEC 19786, Co-Editors Jutta Treviranus (Canada), Liddy Nevile (Australia) and Andy Heath (UK) for ISO/IEC 24751

    • RG1 Chair: Patrick Towell (UK)

    • SWG Chair: Bruce Peoples (USA)

    Bernard Blandin

    Standards for e learning

    Any question ?

    Bernard Blandin