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Lecture. Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939). Meanings of PA. Theory of personality Theory of the mind Method for analyzing psychological processes Therapy school Framework for analyzing cultural products Worldview. Traditional Psychology and PA.

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Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939)

meanings of pa
Meanings of PA
  • Theory of personality
  • Theory of the mind
  • Method for analyzing psychological processes
  • Therapy school
  • Framework for analyzing cultural products
  • Worldview
traditional psychology and pa
Traditional Psychology and PA
  • Traditional psychology: Ambivalent attitude towards psychoanalysis.
historical division of pa
Historical division of PA:
  • I. Pre-analytic phase: 1881 - 1894
  • II. Analytic phase:
    • Trauma theories 1895 - 1899
    • Topographic theories 1900 - 1922
    • Structural theory 1923 - 1939
  • III. Post-Freudian approaches
freud s early life
Freud's Early Life
  • Sigmund Freud was born 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia.
  • His family moved to Vienna in 1860, where Freud remained until the Nazis forced him to London in 1938.
  • Unusual family constellation --> sensitized Freud to family relationships?
  • Outstanding student.
  • Freud enrolled in the University of Vienna's medical school in 1873
  • Outstanding teachers:
    • Franz Brentano
    • Ernst Brücke
  • Interest in mechanistic physiology.
preanalytic phase 1881 1894
Preanalytic phase: 1881 - 1894
  • 1881: MD.
  • Charcot
  • Josef Breuer (Anna O = Bertha Pappenheim)
  • Free association
  • Training at Vienna's General Hospital: Studied under the famous brain anatomist Meynert (1833-1893). Freud: Diagnosis of localized brain injuries.
  • 1885: Meynert's support for a traveling grant to study in Paris with Charcot.
  • Lectured to the Vienna Medical Society about his study with Charcot and hysteria.
  • Freud felt that he became an outsider.
preanalytic phase 1881 18941
Preanalytic phase: 1881 - 1894
  • Patients of hysteria were treated with:
    • Hypnosis
    • Cathartic method
    • Pressure technique
    • Free association
  • Free association: Encourage patients to let their thoughts run free, and to honestly report whatever comes to mind, even if it seems irrelevant, embarrassing or anxiety arousing.
  • With free association Freud discovered several new and interesting features of hysterical illness.
    • (a) A whole series of pathogenic ideas were often behind an individual hysterical symptom --> Overdetermination
    • (b) Memories seemed to have been actively (unconsciously) repressed by patients.
    • (c) Freud detected intrapsychic conflict in patients.
analytic phase trauma theories 1895 1899
Analytic phase: Trauma theories 1895 - 1899
  • 1895: Studies on Hysteria (together with Breuer)
  • Seduction theory
  • Studies on Hysteria (1895): First great classic of the new field psychoanalysis.
  • Freud and Breuer offered the hypothesis that hysterics suffer mainly from memories of emotionally charged experiences that have been somehow placed beyond the reach of ordinary consciousness --> pathogenic ideas.
  • Freud and Breuer referred to many hysterical symptoms as conversions (emotional into physical energy).
  • 1896: Freud published his seduction theory of hysteria in a medical journal article.
  • Patients recalled scenes of early sexual mistreatment, often by parents or other close relatives.
  • Freud: All hysterics must have undergone sexual abuse as children.
  • Symptoms function as defenses against psychologically dangerous pathogenic ideas.
  • Seduction theory --> Critical reception from medical colleagues, who stopped referring patients to Freud.
  • Freud himself soon began to believe that his patients' childhood seductions had often been imaginary rather than real.
  • Masson (see film) charged that Freud merely caved in to the medical establishment by disavowing an unpopular point of view.
analytic phase topographic theories 1900 1922
Analytic phase: Topographic theories 1900 - 1922
  • 1900 The Interpretation of Dreams
  • 1901 The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
  • 1905 Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality
  • 1909 Clark University
  • Conscious, preconscious, unconscious
  • Psychosexual stages
  • Development of psychoanalytic treatment
topographic theories interpretation of dreams
Topographic theories Interpretation of dreams
  • Manifest content: Consciously experienced content of the dream. Fantastic images, often unintelligible to the dreamer.
  • Latent content: inspires the dream (in consciousness only after free association).
  • Dreamers often resist the uncovering of this latent content (much as hysterical patients resisted the recollection of their pathogenic ideas).
  • The sleeping mind transforms latent into manifest content by means of dream work.
    • (a) Displacement: The manifest content symbolizes the latent content in a "safe" way with images less distressing than the latent content --> Defensive function.
    • (b) Condensation: Several different latent thoughts may be symbolized by a single image of the manifest content.
    • (c) Concrete representation: Manifest content typically represents latent ideas by means of concretely experienced sensations
dreams the primary and secondary thought processes
Dreams: The Primary and Secondary Thought Processes.
  • Freud saw both dreams and hysterical symptoms as resulting from similar unconscious symbolic processes.
  • Freud hypothesized opposed modes of mental activity: one unconscious and associated with dream and symptom formation (primary process), the other conscious and responsible for rational thought (secondary process).
  • Infants are born with the capacity for dreams but have to learn how to think rationally --> unconscious mode of thought = primary process; conscious mode = secondary process.
  • Adults' dreams and hysterical symptoms: Secondary-process thinking is abandoned in favor of the developmentally earlier primary process. Primary-process thought plays a positive role in creative and artistic thinking.
dreams the wish fulfillment hypothesis
Dreams: The Wish-Fulfillment Hypothesis:
  • Freud had concluded that all dreams represent the fulfillment of wishes.
  • Dreams: stimulated by latent wishes.
  • Symptoms: stimulated by sexual memories.
  • Seduction scenes reported by hysterical patients indirectly reflected sexual wishes rather than actual experiences.
theory of childhood sexuality
Theory of Childhood Sexuality:
  • Patients, outwardly morally virtuous, secretly and unconsciously harbored sexual fantasies that respectable society would never tolerate.
  • Self-analysis: Free association of his own dreams and symptoms.
    • Unconscious hostile wishes toward his consciously loved father.
    • "Sexual" wishes regarding his mother.
  • Death = Absence. Sexuality = Any kind of sensual, physical gratification.
  • Freud concluded that anyone who honestly subjected himself or herself to analysis by free association would discover traces of similar wishes --> Oedipus complex.
1905 three essays on the theory of sexuality
1905: Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.
  • Freud postulated a generalized form of human sexual drive, present from birth onward.
  • Human infant: Born in a state of polymorphous perversity capable of taking sexual (sensuous) pleasure from the stimulation of any part of the body.
    • In earliest infancy: the mouth or oral zone predominates as the locus of this form of sexual gratification.
    • When toilet training begins, the anal zone assumes particular importance.
    • After children have developed fuller control over their bodies: Stimulation of the genital zone becomes a major source of sexual pleasure. Age of five: Oedipus complex emerges.
    • Latency stage (lasts until the physical maturation of puberty): Child enters a psychologically tranquil period suited for learning.
psychoanalytic psychotherapy
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
  • Freud realized that a patient has not ambivalences toward parents or other significant people but also toward the therapist.
  • Transference feelings: Patients tended to transfer onto Freud, as the therapist, motives and attributes of the important people from their past lives who were implicated in their neurotic symptoms.
  • Enduring cure requires the uncovering and analysis of the entire complex of underlying conflicts --> months or years to complete.
  • Freud did not provide the quick and specific cures for hysterical symptoms he had originally hoped for
  • Freud sought to place his clinical discoveries within a broader theoretical context --> a general model of the mind (metapsychology).
  • Freud's earliest metapsychological theorizing: neurophysiological background.
  • Later: Freud decided to avoid neurological technicalities by expressing his metapsychology in completely psychological terms.
analytic phase structural theories 1923 1939
Analytic phase: Structural Theories1923-1939
  • 1923 The Ego and the Id.
  • Personality theory of id, ego, superego
  • 1938: Vienna -> London
  • The Ego and the Id: Three different kinds of demands conflict with one another.
  • (a) Demands from the body itself (biologically based urges for nourishment, warmth, sexual gratification) --> instincts.
  • (b) Demands imposed by external reality;
  • (c) Moral demands impinge on the mind independently of the instincts and external reality.
  • Separate systems to process the three kinds of psychic demands.
  • (a) The id as the repository of unconscious powerful impulses and energies from the instincts.
  • (b) A perception-consciousness system: Conveys information about external reality to the mind.
  • (c) Moral demands originate from an agency which Freud called the superego.
  • Thus the id, the perception system, and the superego all have conflicting demands on the psyche --> compromise.
  • Psychic agency responsible for compromise: the ego.
  • Some of the ego's compromises --> Hysterical symptoms (maladaptive).
defense mechanism
Defense Mechanism
  • Freud saw everyday life as dominated by ego compromises he called defense mechanisms (together with Anna Freud).
    • Displacement: Redirecting an impulse toward a substitute target that resembles the original in some way, but is safer.
    • Projection: Reversing unacceptable impulses by attributing them to someone else instead.
    • Intellectualization: An emotion-charged subject is approached in a strictly intellectual manner that avoids emotional involvement.
    • Denial: Believing and behaving as if an instinct driven event had never occurred.
    • Rationalization: Acting because of a motive but explaining the behavior on the basis of another, more acceptable one.
    • Sublimation: Channeling energy from an instinct to produce a creative and socially valuable result.
civilization and its discontents
Civilization and Its Discontents
  • Love poses problems because of the possibility of losing the loved person through desertion, death, or other separation.
  • Few human experiences are more catastrophic than the loss of a loved person, and those who have once lost at love may be reluctant to try it again as the answer to the human dilemma.
  • World War I: Civilization is developing in a way as to increase opportunities for expression of the instincts of aggression and death, while decreasing them for sexuality and love.
after and beyond freud
After and beyond Freud
  • Freud left an extraordinary intellectual legacy.
  • For psychotherapists and psychologists, Freudian theory remains a major source of both inspiration and contention.
  • International Psycho-Analytic Association
  • Erik Erikson (1902-1994) proposed a series of psychosocial stages.
  • The object relations school places less emphasis than Freud did on the role of the instincts and more on the details of relationships with love objects.
  • Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)
  • Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • --> Freud had overemphasized sexuality.