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targeted support through social skills instructional groups part 1 social skill deficit framework n.
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Lori Newcomer, Ph.D . University of Missouri Felicia D. Hagerstrom, JD. PowerPoint Presentation
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Lori Newcomer, Ph.D . University of Missouri Felicia D. Hagerstrom, JD.

Lori Newcomer, Ph.D . University of Missouri Felicia D. Hagerstrom, JD.

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Lori Newcomer, Ph.D . University of Missouri Felicia D. Hagerstrom, JD.

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  1. Targeted Support through Social Skills Instructional GroupsPart 1: Social Skill Deficit Framework Lori Newcomer, Ph.D. University of Missouri Felicia D. Hagerstrom, JD. AEA 267 / Waterloo Community Schools

  2. Social Skills Part 1 (9:15-10:30) • Social Skill Deficiency Framework • Assessment • Social Skills Part 2 (10:55-12:10) • Planning groups and delivering intervention

  3. Primary prevention (universals) works when students… • have multiple, nonaggressive coping repertoires for managing frustration and perceived personal threats • are experienced and adept at acquiring adult approval and willing to be deferential to adult authority • are able to regulate their anger along a continuum of intensity appropriate for the situation at hand. • able to inhibit impulsive behavior in conformance to a stated rule or the general mores of socially acceptable behavior. Larson 2005

  4. Social Skills vs. Social Competence • Social skills are a specific group of behaviors that an individual exhibits in order to complete a social task • Social tasksare things such as peer group entry, having a conversation, making friends, or playing a game with peers • Social competenceis an evaluative term (given certain criteria) that an individual performed a social task adequately Gresham & Elliott (1991)

  5. How do we determine social competence? ……..the eye of the beholder

  6. Felicia D. Hagerstrom, JD. PBIS District Coordinator AEA 267 / Waterloo Community Schools Waterloo, Iowa fhagerstrom@aea267.k12..ia.us A Cultural perspective

  7. A cultural perspective • Children from culturally diverse groups are likely to engage in behaviors that are at variance with the culture of the school. • By the year 2035 close to 50% of children in the United States will come from racial and ethnic minority families, immigrant families, or both (Rogers & Sirin, 2009) • 9 out of every 10 teachers are white and from nonimmigrant backgrounds. (Cartledge & Milburn, 1996)

  8. A cultural perspective • Culture… …provides standard for perceiving, believing, evaluating, communicating, and acting (Triandis, 1996) …is learned (not innate), shared (not specific to the individual), dynamic (not static), and incorporates values that dictate behavior (Peoples & Bailey, 1991)

  9. A cultural perspective • Increasing diversity of students in schools underscore the need to view social behaviors within the cultural context • Culture provides a framework through which to filter actions as people negotiate their daily lives • Social behaviors of culturally and linguistically diverse students need to be understood to distinguish differences and deficits (Irvine, 1990) • Research suggests that students’ aptitudes intents or abilities can be misinterpreted due to differences in language use and communication style is a mismatch exists between home culture and school culture (Rogers – Sirin & Sirin, 2009)

  10. A Cultural Perspective “Any educational or training system that ignores the history or perspective of its learners or does not attempt to adjust its teaching practices to benefit all of its learners is contributing to inequality of opportunity” (Wlodkowski and Ginsberg (1995) (p. 26)

  11. A Cultural Perspective • Sense of self and space • Communication and language • Dress and appearance • Food and eating habits • Time and time consciousness • Relationships, family and friends • Values and norms • Beliefs and attitudes • Mental processes and learning style • Work habits and practices

  12. A cultural perspective Read this article “Urban Teachers’ Professed Classroom Management Strategies Reflections of Culturally Responsive Teaching” Dave Brown West Chester University Examples: - “Black children expect the authority figure to act like the authority figure” (Delpit p.35) - African American “call response” (Gay 2000) • Ability to maintain side conversation (Brown, p.281) • Urban students resent a lack of decision making - Perception of authority (Delpit 1995) - Asian students laughter and smile (Gay 200)

  13. A Cultural Perspective • Culture is a predominant force. • The dominant culture serves people in varying degrees. • People have both personal identities and group identities. • Diversity within cultures is vast and significant. • Individuals and groups have unique cultural values and needs.

  14. A Cultural PerspectiveWhat can we do? • Encourage staff to increase their familiarity with cultural differences in expressiveness, communications styles, role of authority, use of language • Encourage staff to increase their familiarity with cultural specificity of their own behavior • Teach behaviors that are socially relevant to culturally and linguistically diverse students. • Acknowledge students cultural identity as a strength • Carefully review operational definitions of behavior violations • Disaggregate ODR data (Tobin & Vincent, 2010)

  15. A Cultural PerspectiveQuestions for Reflection • How does my own cultural background affect how I interact with children, adults and families in our school? • How does the language and cultural background of our students and their families impact how they interact with our teachers, and our school? • How does the cultural background of our staff affect how we interact with the students, adults and families in our schools? • For Whom is the Path Most Clear?

  16. A cultural perspective • Attend to • Cultural relevance of skills taught • Communication style of learner • Manner in which skills are presented • Affirm students and empower to achieve within own subculture and mainstreamed school environment

  17. A Parental perspective

  18. A parent perspective • Research has demonstrated that parent participation can enhance the acquisition, generalization and maintenance of social skills (Hagger & Vaughn, 1995; Schloss, 1984) • However, parents typically asked to support SS instruction, but are not invited to identify skills or participate in program development.

  19. A parent perspective • Parents characterize social skills as (a) getting along and (b) exhibiting traits of character • Essential skills parents identify include: • Proficiency in the ability to discern the motives of others • Skills in communication • Empathy • Skills in interpreting social cues (Kolb & Hanley-Maxwell, 2003)

  20. A parent perspective • Priority: Self-Awareness • Ability to recognize personal emotion • A reflexive process that incorporates personal efficacy, self-concept and self-esteem (Pool, 1997) • Students learn self-awareness by understanding, controlling and expressing their thoughts and feelings (Taylor & Larson, 1999)

  21. A parent perspective • Priority: Self-control / managing emotions • Self-regulation • Constructively resolve conflicts • Problem solving • Decision making • Managing emotions

  22. A parent perspective • Empathy • Recognize the emotions of others • Effective communication and listening • Understand the feelings and perspectives of others • Interpret nonverbal cues (facial expressions, tone of voice, body language)

  23. A parent perspective • Handling relationships • Get along with others • Establishing and maintaining relationships • Self-assertion • Relationship and friendship skills • Interpret the dynamics of social interactions • Discern motives of others • Understand nonverbal social cues.

  24. A parent perspective • Assertion • Assertion: effectively meet one’s need through expression while respecting the rights of others (Thompson, Bundy & Broncheau, 1995) • Initiating conversation • Giving and receiving compliments • Responding appropriately to comments

  25. A parent perspective • Peer Interaction Skills • Sharing • Listening • Complimenting • Helping • Encouraging peers

  26. A parent perspective • Motivation and Self-efficacy • Skills to make positive changes • Skills to competently execute social interactions • Belief that goals can be obtained • Positive thinking, optimism, enthusiasm, self-confidence

  27. Teacher Ranked Top 10 1. Listen to others2. Follow the steps3. Follow the rules4. Ignore distractions5. Ask for help6. Take turns when you talk7. Get along with others8. Stay calm with others9. Be responsible for your behavior10. Do nice things for others

  28. Stop and think… • What significant differences exist between what parents want from social skills instruction and what teachers want. • How can we involve parents in the development and generalization of social skills instruction. • What additional challenges are presented at the secondary level?

  29. Another important question • Have we identified what our goal is when we start a social skills group? • Social skills • Compliance training • Social/emotional learning • Problem-solving • Aggression replacement / anger management

  30. Basic Assumptions on Social Skills • primarily learned behaviors. • deficits can be acquisition (“Can’t do”) or performance (“Won’t do”) problems. • are comprised of specific and discrete verbal and nonverbal behaviors. • include both initiations and responses. • interactive by nature. • highly contextual. • deficits & competing problem behaviors can be identified & treated.

  31. Classification of Social Skills • Acquisition Deficits • Absence of knowledge for executing skill or failure to discriminate which social behaviors are appropriate in specific situations (can’t do) • Performance Deficits • Skill is present in repertoire, but student fails to perform at acceptable levels (won’t do) • Fluency Deficits • Lack of exposure to sufficient or skilled models of social behavior, insufficient rehearsal/practice or low rates or inconsistent delivery of reinforcement of skilled performances

  32. Competing Problem Behaviors Interfering or competing problem behavior are combined to classify social skill deficits • Internalizing or overcontrolled behaviors (e.g., anxiety, depression, social withdrawal) • Externalizing or undercontrolled behavior patterns (e.g., aggression, disruption, impulsivity)

  33. Why Assessment? • Screening and selection of students for social skills interventions • Classification of specific types of social skills deficits • Selection of targeted skills and competing problem behaviors for intervention • Functional assessment • Evaluation of the effects of the intervention

  34. Social Skills Rating Scales Look for: • Large and representative standardization samples. • Adequate psychometric properties • User-friendly availability

  35. Screening ToolsNorm Referenced and Standardized • SSIS (Social Skills Improvement System) • Elliott & Gresham, 2008 (Pearson, PsychCorp.) • Teacher, Parent, Student Rating Scales • Assesses 3 domains (a) social skills, (b) problem behaviors, (c) academic competence • Walker-McConnell Scales of Social Competence and School Adjustment (SSCSA) • Walker & McConnell, 1995 (Wadsworth Publishing) • Elementary subscales: (a)Teacher-preferred Social Skills, (b) Peer-preferred social skills (c) School Adjustment • Adolescent subscales: (a) Empathy, (b) Self-control, (c) School adjustment, (d) peer relations Missouri Prevention Center University of Missouri

  36. Screening ToolsNorm Referenced and Standardized • School Social Behavior Scales 2nd Ed. (SSBS2) • Merrell, 2002 (Brookes Publishing) • Ages 5 - 18 • Measures 2 domains: (a) social competence, (b) antisocial behavior. • Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales (PKBS). • Pro-ed • Two Scales: (a) social skills and (b) problem behavior • Ages 3 – 6 • School and Home ratings • Social Skill subscales: Social Cooperation, Social Interaction, and Social Independence; Problem Behavior subscales: Externalizing Problems and Internalizing Problems.

  37. Screening ToolsNorm Referenced and Standardized • Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders, 2nd Edition (SSBD) • Walker & Severson, 1992 (Sopris-West) • K-6 • Multiple gating procedures Missouri Prevention Center University of Missouri

  38. Targeting Specific Social Skills for Training • Determine specific social skill deficits • Identify competing problem behaviors • Evaluate social validity of targeted social skills (significance, acceptability, importance)

  39. Linking Assessment Results to Intervention Behavior Dimension Social Skill Dimension

  40. Linking Assessment Results to Intervention Behavior Dimension Social Skill Dimension

  41. Linking Assessment Results to Intervention Behavior Dimension Social Skill Dimension

  42. Linking Assessment Results to Intervention Behavior Dimension Social Skill Dimension

  43. Linking Assessment Results to Intervention Behavior Dimension Social Skill Dimension

  44. Taxonomy of Social Skills Five Broad Dimensions • Peer relations (e.g., complimenting others, offering help, inviting peers to play) • Self-management skills (e.g., controlling temper, following rules, compromising) • Academic skills (e.g., completing work independently, listening to teacher direction, producing acceptable quality work) • Compliance skills (e.g., following directions, following rules, using free time appropriately) • Assertion skills ( e.g., initiating conversation, acknowledging compliments, inviting peers to play) (Caldarella & Merrell, 1997)

  45. Now I understand social skills, how do I set up groups? Social Skills Part 2 (10:55-12:10) Planning groups and delivering intervention

  46. Targeted Support through Social Skills Instructional GroupsPart 2: Planning & Teaching Social Skill Groups Lori Newcomer, Ph.D. University of Missouri

  47. Social Skills vs. Social Competence • Social skills are a specific group of behaviors that an individual exhibits in order to complete a social task • Social tasksare things such as peer group entry, having a conversation, making friends, or playing a game with peers • Social competenceis an evaluative term (given certain criteria) that an individual performed a social task adequately Gresham & Elliott (1991)

  48. Classification of Social Skills • Acquisition Deficits • Absence of knowledge for executing skill or failure to discriminate which social behaviors are appropriate in specific situations (can’t do) • Performance Deficits • Skill is present in repertoire, but student fails to perform at acceptable levels (won’t do) • Fluency Deficits • Lack of exposure to sufficient or skilled models of social behavior, insufficient rehearsal/practice or low rates or inconsistent delivery of reinforcement of skilled performances