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Cardiovascular system. System Pulmonary-blood to and from lungs Systemic-blood to and from body Coronary-blood to and from heart muscle Vessels Arteries (efferent)-carry blood away from the heart Veins (afferent)-carry blood to the heart

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cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular system
  • System
    • Pulmonary-blood to and from lungs
    • Systemic-blood to and from body
    • Coronary-blood to and from heart muscle
  • Vessels
    • Arteries (efferent)-carry blood away from the heart
    • Veins (afferent)-carry blood to the heart
    • Capillaries-exchange gas and nutrients from blood to tissue, inbetween arteries and veins
Anatomy of Heart
    • Myocardium-cardiac (Heart) muscle
    • Left Ventricle-pumps blood to systemic system
    • Right Ventricle-pumps blood to pulmonary system
    • Left Atrium-collects blood from pulmonary system
    • Right atrium- collects blood from systemic system
    • Flow of blood
      • Both atriums drop blood into corresponding ventricle
      • Left ventriclebodyright atriumright ventriclelungsleft atriumleft ventriclebody
Physiology of heart
    • Heart beats about 75 times per minute
    • Intrinsic conduction system
      • Node cells- determine rate of contraction
      • Sinoatrial node (SA node)-pacemaker, pass signal to AV node
      • Atrioventricular node (AV)-between atrium and ventricals, delays signal then contracts Ventricle
Fibrillation-uncoordinated shuddering of heart
  • Myocardial Infarction-heart attack due to blockage of coronary system
  • Cardiac output-amount of blood pumped by each side of heart in one minute
    • Heart rate X stroke volume (amount of blood pumped by ventricle per contraction)
    • 75 beats/min X 70 ml/beat =5250 ml/mi
  • Starling’s law
    • Critical to stretch heart muscles
    • Stretch heart muscle by venous return
      • Slow heart beat (more time to fill ventricles)
      • Exercise (speed up venous return)
  • Sympathetic Nervous system-speeds up heart beat
  • Parasympathetic-slow heart beat
Heart sounds
    • Systole-contraction of ventricles
    • Diastole- relaxation of ventricles
    • Lubb-closing of AV valves
    • Dubb-closing of semilunar valves
    • Murmers-unusual heart sound (swishing), due to improper closing of valve
Physiology of Circulation
    • Pulse-expansion and recoil of artery following contraction
    • Blood pressure-pressure exerted on walls of vessels (120/80)
      • Systolic pressure-pressure at peak of contraction (120)
      • Diastolic pressure-pressure when ventricles relax (expanded)
    • Change in blood pressure
      • increased cardiac output
Peripheral resistance-amount of friction encountered by blood as it flows through vessels
    • Constricting of vessels
    • Increased blood viscosity
  • Age, weight, time of day, body position, emotional state, drugs, food.
  • Neural factors-sympathetic nervous system, vasoconstriction (bleeding) increase BP due to bleeding
  • Renal Factors (kidneys)-retain water, increase BP, Renin-enzyme that controls sodium in blood, which is followed by water
Temperature-cold is vasoconstrictor
    • Chemicals
      • Epinephrine-increases heart rate
      • Nicotine-vasoconstrictor
      • Alcohol-vasodilator
      • Histamine-vasodilator
    • Diet-diets low in salts, fats, cholesterol, prevent high blood pressure
  • Hypotension-low blood pressure
    • Systolic below 100mm Hg, associated with healthy life style
  • Hypertension-high blood pressure
    • 140/90