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CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation. Section 1: The American Values System Section 2: Social Control Section 3: Social Change. Section 1: The American Values System. Objectives:. Identify the basic values that form the foundation of American culture.

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chapter 3 cultural conformity and adaptation

CHAPTER 3Cultural Conformity and Adaptation

Section 1: The American Values System

Section 2: Social Control

Section 3: Social Change

objectives

Section 1: The American Values System

Objectives:
  • Identify the basic values that form the foundation of American culture.
  • Describe new values that have developed in the United States since the 1970s.
eight basic values of american culture

Section 1: The American Values System

(Eight) Basic Values of American Culture
  • Personal Achievement – built primarily by people that value individual achievement, as in the area of employment
  • Individualism – success comes through hard work and initiative
  • Work – Americans view discipline, dedication, and hard work as signs of virtue
basic values of american culture

Section 1: The American Values System

Basic Values of American Culture

(continued)

  • Morality and Humanitarianism – Americans place a high value on morality and tend to view the world in terms of right and wrong; quick to help the unfortunate
  • EfficiencyandPracticality – practical and inventive, every problem has a solution; judge objects on their usefulness and people on their ability to get things done
basic values of american culture5

Section 1: The American Values System

Basic Values of American Culture

(continued)

  • ProgressandMaterialComfort – Americans believe that through hard work and determination living standards will continue to improve
  • EqualityandDemocracy – to have human equality, there must be an equality of opportunity; success is a reward that must be earned
basic values of american culture6

Section 1: The American Values System

Basic Values of American Culture

(continued)

  • Freedom – freedom of choice such as religion, speech, and press and protect them from government interference
our changing values

Section 1: The American Values System

Our Changing Values
  • Self-fulfillment – the commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential; includes leisure, physical fitness and youthfulness
  • Environmental protection
  • Education and Religion were deemed important by students who were polled
objectives8

Section 2: Social Control

Objectives:
  • Identify how the norms of society are enforced.
  • Describe the differences between positive and negative sanctions and between formal and informal sanctions.
enforcing the norms of society

Section 2: Social Control

Enforcing the Norms of Society
  • Internalization – process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectations
  • Sanctions – rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms
different types of sanctions

Section 2: Social Control

Different Types of Sanctions
  • Positive Sanction – action that rewards a particular kind of behavior such as good grades or a pay raise
  • Negative Sanction – punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity such as frowns, imprisonment, and even death
different types of sanctions11

Section 2: Social Control

Different Types of Sanctions

(continued)

  • Formal Sanction – rewards or punishments by a formal organization or regulatory agency such as the government and includes promotions, awards, or low grades
  • Informal Sanction – spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval by an individual or group such as a standing ovation, gifts, gossip, or ridicule
objectives12

Section 3: Social Change

Objectives:
  • Identify and describe the main sources of social change.
  • Describe the factors that lead people to resist social change.
slide13

Social Change

Source of

Social Change

SocialConsequence

Example

Women vote helped political decisions (social)

values and beliefs

Right to Vote

IPOD Factory

Child Labor Pollution

technology

Increase in Cultural Traits and values. Decrease in open land

population

Increase Population

Instant communications, TV, Radio, and Satellite

diffusion

Spread of Cultural Traits

physical environment

Floods, Drought, Fire

Ruined homes and landscape

Loss of lives, Depression, and possibly War

wars and conquests

September (9/11/01)

main sources of social change

Section 3: Social Change

Main Sources of Social Change
  • Values and Beliefs – are affected by ideology spread through social movements
  • Technology – knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environment
  • Population – change in size of population may bring about changes in the culture
  • Diffusion – the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another
main sources of social change15

Section 3: Social Change

Main Sources of Social Change

(continued)

  • Physical Environment – the environment may provide conditions that encourage or discourage cultural change
  • Wars and Conquest – are not common but bring about the greatest amount of change in the least amount of time
factors leading to resisting social change

Section 3: Social Change

Factors Leading to Resisting Social Change
  • Ethnocentrism – can lead to segregation
  • Cultural Lag – a delay in cultural change such as the introduction and use of computers
  • Vested Interests – might lead to a focus on maintaining budgets over a focus on providing a quality education and instruction